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Flashcards in Nervous System Deck (75):
1

spatial summation

postsynaptic neuron stimulated or inhibited simultaneously by large number of presynaptic axon terminals
resulting EPSP or IPSP add together

2

EPSP

depolarization

3

IPSP

hyperpolarization

4

temporal summation

postsynaptic neuron stimulated or inhibited in *quick succession* by on or more presynaptic neurons
resulitng EPSPs or IPSPs add together

5

at threshold

depolarization opens more voltage gated sodium channels

6

What are the two processes that break the loop of the positive feedback??

inactivation of sodium channels, voltage sensitive gate
activation of K channels (out of cell), slow responders, become fully activated ager action potential reaches its peak

7

repolarization

K leaving and less Na coming in

8

hyperpolarization

K continues to leave after resting potential has been reached

9

absolute refractory period

a neuron cannot generate another action potential while it is doing one

10

relative refractory period

stronger stimuli have to arrive at the axon hillock

11

conduction velocity

how fast the nerve impulse travels down the axon
the larger the diameter, the faster the AP

12

saltatory conduction

myelinated axon AP

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action potential

all or none

14

charge inside cell

-70mV

15

what make the sodium channel inactive?

a time sensitive arm

16

for every 3 Na out

2 K in

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transports both sodium and potassium ions across the membrane to compensate for their constant leakage

sodium potassium pump

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mobilizes body systems during activity

sympathetic division

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conserves energy
promotes house keeping functions while at rest

parasympathetic division

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sensory

afferent

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motor

efferent, impulses from CNS
sympathetic, parasympathetic
somatic, autonomic

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somatic

voluntary

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autonomic

involuntary

24

From most anterior to most posterior, what is the order of the secondary embryonic brain vesicles?

Telencephalon
Diencephalon
Mesencephalon
Metencephalon
Myelocephalon

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The telencephalon becomes...

the two cerebral hemispheres, cerebrum

26

The diencephalon becomes...

the hypothalamus, thalamus, epithalamus, and retina of eye

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Mesencephalon becomes...

midbrain

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Metencephalon becomes...

pons and cerebellum

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Myelocephalon becomes...

medulla oblongata

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brain stem

midbrain, pons and medulla oblongata

31

Important areas of the frontal lobe

primary motor cortex
premotor cortex - helps plan movements, basic movement to accomplish complex tasks
Broca's area - speech production
prefrontal - personality, cognition

32

parietal

somatosensory cortex (just posterior to primary motor) and somatosensory association cortex just posterior to the somatosensory cortex

33

temporal

auditory, olfactory

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occipital

visual

35

insula

taste and visceral stimuli

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Multimodal association area

general interpretive areas throughout temporal, occipital, parietal, frontal lobes
• Flow of info: sensory receptors primary sensory cortex  sensory association area multimodal association areas 
premotor cortex

37

Basal nuclei

gray matter deep within white matter
Input from cerebral cortex • Project into premotor & prefrontal cortex • Influence muscle movements (starting/stopping) • Role in cognition & emotion

38

thalamus

mailroom
ALL sensory input comes to thalamus first - Sorts impulses and sends similar ones out in “bulk”

39

hypothalamus

controls ANS
Response to emotions –Regulate body temperature –Regulate food intake/water balance –Regulate biological clock –Endocrine control

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epithalamus

Pineal gland, secretes the hormone melatonin which regulates wake/sleep cycles

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Cerebellum

Muscle coordination

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ventral roots

fused axons of neurons whose cell bodies in ventral & lateral horns
– Only transmits efferent (motor) impulses

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dorsal roots

axons of sensory (afferent) neurons
– Only transmits afferent (sensory) impulses

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ascending tracts

afferent, sensory

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descneding tracts

efferent, motor

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ascending tracts

spinocerebellar
spinothalamic
dorsal column-medial lemniscal

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Spinothalamic

coarse touch, pressure, pain, & temperature (spinal cord to thalamus)

48

Spinocerebellar

muscle/tendon stretch
(spinal cord to cerebellum

49

Dorsal column-medial lemniscal

fine touch
(spinal cord/medulla to thalamus

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Descending tracts can be

indirect or direct pathways

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direct pathways (desceding tracts)

do not synapse before reaching spinal cord

pyramidal, corticospinal, fine movements, cerebrum to spinal cord

52

tectospinal

eyeball and neck movements, midbrain to spinal cord

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rubriospinal

controls flexor muscles, red nucleus to spinal cord

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vestibulospinal

posture muscles, medulla to spinal cord

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reticulospinal

pons/medulla to spinal cord

56

What is so bad about polio?

Destroys ventral horn neurons
Remember, the ventral horn neurons are motor neurons

57

proprioceptors

are sensors that provide information about joint angle, muscle length, and muscle tension, which is integrated to give information about the position of the limb in space.

58

Midbrain

hearing, eyeball movement, vision, body movement

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Medulla

maintaining vital body function, autonomic function, breathing and heart rate, other reflexes like sneezing an domiting

60

Pons

motor control and sensory analylsis

61

What is the largest of the midbrain nuclei?

corpora quadrigemina

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Which part of the corpora quadrigemina of the midbrain controls visual reflexes?

superior colliculi

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Which part of the corpora quadrigemina of the midbrain controls auditory reflexes?

inferior colliculi

64

Where is the substantia nigra?

just ventral to the red nuclei, which are all located in the midbrain
The substantial nigra produces dopamine.
The red nucleus is a relay for limb flexion.

65

Only two structures of the pons mentioned...what are they?

projection fibers into both the higher brain and spinal cord
ventral fibers into cerebellum, connecting it to it

66

from superficial to deep, what are the layers of the meninges?

dura, arachnoid, pia

67

What do the dorsal, posterior horns of the spinal cord contain?

interneurons

68

What do the anterior horns, the ventral horns, contain?

motor neurons

69

sympathetic NS

fight or flight

70

parasympathetic

rest and digest

71

What do microglia do?

little housekeeper, clean up dead neurons and microorganisms

72

What is the functional equivalent of an astrocyte in the PNS?

satellite cells

73

CNS doesn't have nerves, it has...

tracts

74

Gray matter of the PNS?

ganglia

75

depolarization

to make RMP more positive, to bring closer to threshold potential