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Anatomy Lecture Exam #3 > Nervous Tissue > Flashcards

Flashcards in Nervous Tissue Deck (84):
1

What is the nervous system?

The body's primary communication and control system

2

What two types of nervous tissue is the nervous system composed of?

Neurons and Glial cells

3

What are the two names of the structural division of the nervous system?

CNS and PNS

4

What two structures does the CNS include?

brain and spinal cord

5

What three structures does the PNS include?

cranial nerves, spinal nerves and ganglia

6

What is a bunch of soma in the CNS called?

Nucleus

7

What is a bunch of axons in the CNS called?

Tract

8

What is a bunch of soma in the PNS called?

Ganglia

9

What are a bunch of axons in the PNS called?

Nerves

10

What are the two ways to classify the nervous system functionally?

Sensory nervous system and motor nervous system

11

The sensory nervous system is ____ information.

input

12

Which way does information flow in the sensory nervous system?

PNS -----> CNS

13

What are the two subcategories of the sensory nervous system?

Visceral sensory and somatic sensory

14

Is somatic sensory conscious or unconscious stimuli?

Conscious

15

What are six examples of somatic sensory?

touch, pain, pressure, smell, sight, and sound

16

Is visceral sensory information unconscious or conscious?

unconscious

17

What is an example of visceral sensory information?

information from organs (blood vessel stretch)

18

The motor nervous system is _____ information.

output

19

Which way does information flow in the motor nervous system?

CNS ----> PNS

20

Which two subcategories are under the motor nervous system?

Autonomic motor and somatic motor

21

Is somatic motor voluntary or involuntary?

voluntary

22

What does the somatic motor system innervate?

Skeletal muscle

23

Is the autonomic motor system voluntary or involuntary?

involuntary

24

What does the autonomic motor system innervate?

smooth and cardiac muscles, glands

25

What two subcategories are under the autonomic motor system?

Sympathetic and parasympathetic

26

What is the catch phrase for the sympathetic nervous system?

Fight or flight

27

What does the sympathetic nervous system prepare the body for?

energy consuming activities

28

What is the catch phrase for the parasympathetic nervous system?

rest and digest

29

What does the parasympathetic nervous system prepare the body for?

gaining and conserving energy

30

What is the description for a neuron?

electrically excitable and conductive

31

What are the three characteristics of neurons?

high metabolic rate, extreme longevity and non-mitotic

32

What three structures are part of a neuron?

soma, dendrites, axons

33

What does the soma do?

receive, integrate and send information

34

What three organelles are found in the soma?

mitochondria, RER and ribosomes

35

What are many RER and ribosomes in one area called?

Nissl Bodies

36

What color are Nissl Bodies?

Gray

37

What do dendrites do?

Receive information and send it to the soma

38

What do axons do?

Sends information to effector

39

What is the axon hillock?

site of axon connection to soma

40

What are axon collaterals?

side branches

41

What is telodendria?

Fine terminal extensions

42

What are synaptic knobs?

expanded tips of telodendria

43

How are neurons classified structurally?

it is based on the number of processes from the soma

44

What does a unipolar neuron look like?

single short process that branches like a T

45

What does a bipolar neuron look like?

2 processes, one for dendrites, other for axon

46

What does a multipolar neuron look like?

many dendrites and a single axon

47

Of the three neurons, which is the most common?

mulitpolar

48

How are neurons classified functionally?

it is based on the direction of the impulse

49

What is another name for sensory neurons?

Afferent

50

What is another name for motor neurons?

Efferent

51

Which direction do sensory neuron impulses go?

From sensory receptors to CNS

52

Structurally, which type of neuron are sensory neurons? of the two, which one is it mostly.

unipolar and bipolar. mostly unipolar

53

Where are the cell bodies found for sensory neurons?

outside of the CNS

54

Which direction to motor neuron impulses go?

from the CNS to muscles or glands

55

Structurally, what type of neuron is a motor neuron? Where is the soma located?

multipolar and inside CNS

56

What do interneurons transmit?

impulses between sensory and motor neurons

57

About what percentage of neurons is made up by interneurons?

99%

58

Structurally what kind of neuron is an interneuron and where is the cell body located?

multipolar and inside the CNS

59

What is the function of glial cells?

protect and nourish neurons

60

What are the four characteristics of glial cells?

Not excitable, mitotic, smaller and more abundant

61

What do astrocytes look like? Are there a lot of them?

star shaped; they are most abundant

62

What are the four functions of astrocytes?

forms blood brain barrier, forms structural framework, replaces damaged neurons, and assisting neuronal development

63

What are ependymal cells?

ciliated cuboidal cells lining ventricles ad central canal of spinal cord

64

What do ependymal cells form?

choroid plexus

65

What is the function of ependymal cells?

produce and circulate CSF

66

What does CSF do?

nourish nervous tissue

67

What are the three characteristics of microglial cells?

smallest cells, least abundant and phagocytic

68

What is the function of microglial cells?

respond to infections, remove waste and debris

69

Are oligodendrocytes large or small?

large

70

What is the function of oligodendrocytes?

myelinated multiple axons in the CNS

71

What is myelin?

Electrical insulation

72

What color is myelin? Why is it that color?

White because it is lipid filled.

73

What are satellite cells?

flattened cells surrounding soma in ganglia

74

What is the function of satellite cells?

keeps soma separate and regulates nutrients

75

What are neurolemmocytes?

Schwann cells

76

What is the function of neurolemmocytes?

myelinated single axon in PNS

77

What are nerves?

Bundle of parallel axons in PNS

78

What kind of connective tissue surround the endometrium?

Aereolar CT

79

What does the endometrium surround?

Schwann cells and axon

80

What kind of CT surrounds the perineum?

Dense irregular CT

81

What does the perineum surround?

Fascicles (group of axons)

82

What kind of CT surrounds the epinerium?

Dense irregular CT

83

What does the epinerium surround?

A nerve (bundle of fascicles)

84

What are synapses?

communication junction between axons and another neuron, muscle or gland