Flashcards in Spinal Cord Deck (60):
What is the spinal cord the link between?
The brain and the body
What are the two functions of the spinal cord?
Pathway for sensory and motor impulses and reflexes
What is a reflex?
The quickest reaction to a stimulant
What is the length of the spinal cord in cm and inches?
42-45 cm, and 16-18 in
What are the two longitudinal depressions in the spinal cord?
Posterior median sulcus and anterior median fissure
What are the five different names for parts of the spinal cord?
Cervical, Thoracic, Lumbar, Sacral, Coccygeal
What does the cervical enlargement control?
Motor control of upper limbs
What does the lumbosacral enlargement control?
Motor control of the lower limbs
What is the conus medularis?
Tapering inferior end of spinal cord
What is the caudal equina?
groups of axons projecting inferiorly
What is the film terminale?
Anchors conus medullar is to coccyx
How many pairs of spinal nerves are there?
How many cervical spinal nerves are there?
How many thoracic spinal nerves are there?
How many lumbar spinal nerves are there?
How many sacral spinal nerves are there?
How many coccygeal spinal nerves are there?
What do the spinal cord meninges do?
Protects and encapsulates spinal cord
What are the spinal cord meninges a continuation of?
The brain's meninges
What does the spinal dura mater not have that the cranial dura mater has?
What are the three spinal cord meninges from furthest away to deepest?
Dura mater, arachnoid mater, pia mater
What is the pia mater found on?
What does the pia mater support?
What are denticulate ligaments?
Lateral extensions that attach to dura mater
What is the epidural space?
Space between vertebra and dura mater
What is the subdural space?
space between dura mater and arachnoid mater
What is the subarachnoid space?
Space between arachnoid mater and pia mater
Of the three spaces, which one can potentially happen?
What is the subarachnoid mater filled with?
What is the gray matter?
Inner portion, butterfly shaped
What are the 4 categories the gray matter is divided into?
anterior horns, lateral horns, posterior horns, gray commissures
What kind of nuclei are the anterior horns made of?
Somatic motor nuclei
What kind of nuclei are the posterior horns made of?
IN the posterior horn, what are the somatic sensory nuclei made of?
Soma of interneurons and axons of sensory neurons
In the posterior horn, what are the visceral sensory nuclei made of?
Soma of interneuron and axons of sensory neurons
What are the three regions of white matter on the spinal cord?
Posterior funiculus, anterior funiculus, and lateral funiculus
What connects white matter together?
What are ascending and descending tracts made of?
Axons in the funiculus
What is an ascending tract?
Sends sensory information to brain
What is a descending tract?
Sends motor information away from the brain
What does the anterior root contain?
What does the posterior root contain?
sensory axons and posterior root ganglion
What does the posterior root ganglion contain?
What are the two spinal nerve branches?
Posterior and anterior ramus
Which of the two spinal branches is the smaller one?
What does the posterior ramus innervate?
The posterior trunk
What does the anterior ramus innervate?
Anterior and lateral trunk, limbs
What is a plexus?
network of interweaving spinal nerves
What is the other structure on the rami communicants?
Sympathetic trunk ganglion
Where are parasympathetic neurons found?
Brainstem and sacral region
Where are sympathetic neurons found?
thoracic and lumbar region
Where is the sympathetic trunk found?
Anterior to spinal nerves, lateral to spinal column
What are sympathetic trunk ganglion?
Somas of sympathetic neurons
What can postganglionic neurons do?
Move up/down the trunk
What is a reflex arc?
Neural wiring of a single reflex
What are the three steps of a reflex arc?
Receptor in PNS communicates with Cns and gets sent to a PNS receptor
What is ipsilateral?
Receptor and effector are on the same side
What is contralateral?
Receptor and effector are on opposite sides
What is monosynaptic?
Sensory axons synapse directly with motor neurons