Flashcards in Special Senses Deck (78):
What are receptors?
Structures that detect stimuli
What are the two types of receptors for general senses?
Somatic and visceral receptors
What is the name of the receptor for special senses?
Special senses receptor
Where are somatic receptors found?
What are 5 examples of what somatic receptors feel?
Chemicals, touch, pain, pressure, temperature
Where are visceral receptors found?
What are examples of what visceral receptors feel?
Chemicals, temperature, pressure
Where are special senses receptors found?
Organs in the head
What are the five special senses?
Gustation, olfaction, vision, hearing, equilibrium
What do chemoreceptors sense?
Chemicals (molecules dissolved in fluid)
What do thermoreceptors sense?
changes in body temperature
What do photoreceptors sense?
Changes in light intensity, color and movement
What do mechanoreceptors sense?
Physical changes due to touch, pressure, vibration and stretch
What do baroreceptors sense?
Pressure changes within body structures
What do nociceptors sense?
Tissue damage and pain
Where are tactile receptors found?
Dermis and Subcutaneous
What modality to tactile receptors have?
What are the two types of tactile receptors?
Encapsulated and unencapsulated
What are the names of the two types of unencapsulated tactile receptors?
Free nerve endings and root hair plexus
What do free nerve endings sense?
Pain and temperature
What do root hair plexus' detect?
movement of hair follicles
What are the two types of encapsulated tactile receptors?
Lamellated corpuscles and tactile corpuscles
What do lamellate corpuscles detect?
What do tactile corpuscles detect?
What is gustation?
How do gustatory cells sense taste?
Receptors with microvilli
Where are gustatory cells found?
Taste buds in papillae
What is the modality of gustatory cells?
What are the five things gustatory cells detect?
Sweet, salty, sour, bitter, umami
What is it that we detect with sweet?
What do we detect with salty?
What do we detect with sour?
What do er detect with bitter?
What do we detect with umami?
What nerve innervates the anterior 2/3 of the mouth?
What nerve innervates the posterior 1/3 of the mouth?
How does the sense of taste get to the brain?
From whatever portion of the tongue, then to the medulla oblongata to the thalamus to the primary gustatory cortex which is found in the insula
What is olfaction?
What are olfactory receptors cells?
Receptors with free nerve endings
Where are olfactory receptor cells found?
What is the modality of olfactory receptor cells?
What do olfactory receptor cells detect?
What is the olfactory pathway?
Olfactory receptor cells to cribriform foramina to olfactory bulb to olfactory tract to primary olfactory cortex of temporal lobe
What sense does vision give us?
What are the three layers of the eye?
Sclera, choroid, retina
What layer is the retina?
What are the two layers of the retina?
Pigmented layer and neural layer
What does the pigmented layer absorb?
What does the neural layer contain?
From outer to inner, what is the organization of the neural layer?
Photoreceptor layer, bipolar cells, ganglion cells
What does the photoreceptor layer contain?
Rods and cones
What do the axons form with in the ganglion cell layer??
Axons form with CN II
What does the fovea centrals have a lot of? and what does it have little of?
High amount of cones and low amount of rods
where does someone have the sharpest vision?
at the fovea centralis
what is the visual pathway?
The photoreceptors are stimulated and then hit the bipolar cells then the ganglion cells and then the axons form optic nerve (CN II) to the optic chiasm to the optic tract to the superior colliculi to the thalamus to the primary visual cortex in the occipital lobe
What are the three regions of the ear?
External, middle, inner
What is the external ear called?
What are the three parts of the external ear?
Auricle, external auditory meatus and tympanic membrane
What are the three parts of the middle ear called?
Malleus, incus and stapes
What are the malleus, incus and stapes called?
What are the three parts of the inner ear?
Vestibule, semicircular canals and chochlea
What are the vestibule, semicircular canals, and cochlea called?
What receptors are found in the vestibules?
What are the mechanoreceptors called in the vestibule?
Stereocilia, 1 kinocilium
Where are stereocilia embedded in the vestibule?
Where are stereocilia found?
What does the vestibule detect?
What does the vestibule contain?
Utricle and saccule
What receptors are found in the semicircular canals?
What are the mechanoreceptors embedded in?
Where are the mechanoreceptors found in the semicircular canals?
What do the semicircular canals detect?
What is the equilibrium pathway?
Motion is detected, endolymph moves cupula/ otolithic membrane, sterocilia bends, vestibular branch of CN VIII, to medulla oblongata
What receptors are found in the cochlea?
What are the mechanoreceptors in the cochlea embedded in?
Where are the mechanorecpotrs found?
What does the cochlea detect?