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Anatomy Lecture Exam #3 > Special Senses > Flashcards

Flashcards in Special Senses Deck (78):
1

What are receptors?

Structures that detect stimuli

2

What are the two types of receptors for general senses?

Somatic and visceral receptors

3

What is the name of the receptor for special senses?

Special senses receptor

4

Where are somatic receptors found?

Body walls

5

What are 5 examples of what somatic receptors feel?

Chemicals, touch, pain, pressure, temperature

6

Where are visceral receptors found?

Organ walls

7

What are examples of what visceral receptors feel?

Chemicals, temperature, pressure

8

Where are special senses receptors found?

Organs in the head

9

What are the five special senses?

Gustation, olfaction, vision, hearing, equilibrium

10

What do chemoreceptors sense?

Chemicals (molecules dissolved in fluid)

11

What do thermoreceptors sense?

changes in body temperature

12

What do photoreceptors sense?

Changes in light intensity, color and movement

13

What do mechanoreceptors sense?

Physical changes due to touch, pressure, vibration and stretch

14

What do baroreceptors sense?

Pressure changes within body structures

15

What do nociceptors sense?

Tissue damage and pain

16

Where are tactile receptors found?

Dermis and Subcutaneous

17

What modality to tactile receptors have?

mechanoreceptors

18

What are the two types of tactile receptors?

Encapsulated and unencapsulated

19

What are the names of the two types of unencapsulated tactile receptors?

Free nerve endings and root hair plexus

20

What do free nerve endings sense?

Pain and temperature

21

What do root hair plexus' detect?

movement of hair follicles

22

What are the two types of encapsulated tactile receptors?

Lamellated corpuscles and tactile corpuscles

23

What do lamellate corpuscles detect?

Deep pressure

24

What do tactile corpuscles detect?

Light Touch

25

What is gustation?

Taste

26

How do gustatory cells sense taste?

Receptors with microvilli

27

Where are gustatory cells found?

Taste buds in papillae

28

What is the modality of gustatory cells?

Chemoreceptors

29

What are the five things gustatory cells detect?

Sweet, salty, sour, bitter, umami

30

What is it that we detect with sweet?

Sugar

31

What do we detect with salty?

metal ions

32

What do we detect with sour?

Hydrogen

33

What do er detect with bitter?

Alkaloids

34

What do we detect with umami?

Amino acids

35

What nerve innervates the anterior 2/3 of the mouth?

CN IX

36

What nerve innervates the posterior 1/3 of the mouth?

CN VII

37

How does the sense of taste get to the brain?

From whatever portion of the tongue, then to the medulla oblongata to the thalamus to the primary gustatory cortex which is found in the insula

38

What is olfaction?

Smell

39

What are olfactory receptors cells?

Receptors with free nerve endings

40

Where are olfactory receptor cells found?

Olfactory bulbs

41

What is the modality of olfactory receptor cells?

Chemoreceptors

42

What do olfactory receptor cells detect?

Airborne molecules

43

What is the olfactory pathway?

Olfactory receptor cells to cribriform foramina to olfactory bulb to olfactory tract to primary olfactory cortex of temporal lobe

44

What sense does vision give us?

Sight

45

What are the three layers of the eye?

Sclera, choroid, retina

46

What layer is the retina?

Internal layer

47

What are the two layers of the retina?

Pigmented layer and neural layer

48

What does the pigmented layer absorb?

Light

49

What does the neural layer contain?

Photoreceptors

50

From outer to inner, what is the organization of the neural layer?

Photoreceptor layer, bipolar cells, ganglion cells

51

What does the photoreceptor layer contain?

Rods and cones

52

What do the axons form with in the ganglion cell layer??

Axons form with CN II

53

What does the fovea centrals have a lot of? and what does it have little of?

High amount of cones and low amount of rods

54

where does someone have the sharpest vision?

at the fovea centralis

55

what is the visual pathway?

The photoreceptors are stimulated and then hit the bipolar cells then the ganglion cells and then the axons form optic nerve (CN II) to the optic chiasm to the optic tract to the superior colliculi to the thalamus to the primary visual cortex in the occipital lobe

56

What are the three regions of the ear?

External, middle, inner

57

What is the external ear called?

Auricle

58

What are the three parts of the external ear?

Auricle, external auditory meatus and tympanic membrane

59

What are the three parts of the middle ear called?

Malleus, incus and stapes

60

What are the malleus, incus and stapes called?

Ossicles

61

What are the three parts of the inner ear?

Vestibule, semicircular canals and chochlea

62

What are the vestibule, semicircular canals, and cochlea called?

Bony Labyrinth

63

What receptors are found in the vestibules?

Mechanoreceptors

64

What are the mechanoreceptors called in the vestibule?

Stereocilia, 1 kinocilium

65

Where are stereocilia embedded in the vestibule?

otolithic membrane

66

Where are stereocilia found?

Macula

67

What does the vestibule detect?

Acceleration

68

What does the vestibule contain?

Utricle and saccule

69

What receptors are found in the semicircular canals?

Mechanoreceptors

70

What are the mechanoreceptors embedded in?

Cupula

71

Where are the mechanoreceptors found in the semicircular canals?

ampulla

72

What do the semicircular canals detect?

Rotational motion

73

What is the equilibrium pathway?

Motion is detected, endolymph moves cupula/ otolithic membrane, sterocilia bends, vestibular branch of CN VIII, to medulla oblongata

74

What receptors are found in the cochlea?

Mechanoreceptors

75

What are the mechanoreceptors in the cochlea embedded in?

Tectorial membrane

76

Where are the mechanorecpotrs found?

basilar membrane

77

What does the cochlea detect?

Sound

78

What is the auditory pathway?

bending of cilia, to cochlea nerve to vestibularcochlear nerve CN VIII to the thalamus to the primary auditory cortex