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Flashcards in Neuro Deck (79):
1

sensation with no thalamic relay

olfaction (CNI)

2

VPL nucleus

spinothalamic tract (pain and temperature) and medial lemniscus/dorsal columns (position and proprioception)

3

VPM nucleus

trigeminal and gustatory pathway
-FACE SENSATION, TASTE

4

LGN

relay nucleus for VISION
-receives impulses from the optic nerve and transmits via optic radiations to visual cortex (calcarine sulcus)

5

MGN

input from superior olivary nucleus and inferior colliculus of the pons-relay for HEARING

6

VL

input form basal ganglia, cerebellum
MOTOR info to motor cortex

7

opiods gen mech

G protein linked receptors that
open K, close ca2+ channels decreasing synaptic transmission and release of Ach, Ne, 5HT, glutamate, substance P

8

Benzos gen mech

allosterically bind and modulate GABA receptor-Cl channel in CNS-increasing frequency of opening
-influx of Cl--less excitable
anxiolytics, anticonvulsants, muscle relaxants, sedatives-hynotics
-benzo tolrance via downregulation of GABA receptors

9

barbituates gen mech

bind and increase GABA receptor-Cl channel opening in CNS (bind at different site than benzos do)
-at high doses cause direct gating of the ion channels (ie channel opening without the need of GABA to bind as well)
-cause more hangover

10

drugs to avoid with lithium use

thiazide diuretics (working at DCT therefore not loop), ACEi, NSAIDs
increase lithium levels and more likely to cause lithium toxicity

11

triptans mech

serotonin 5ht agonists that lead to inhibition of vasoactive substance release (ie substance P and calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP)) , vasoconstriction and block pain pathways

12

SSRIs

block presynaptic serotonin reuptake

13

TCAs/SNRIs

block serotonin/NE PREsynaptic reuptake

14

buproprion

blocks presynaptic dopamine and NE reuptake

15

phenytoin mech

reduces ability of Na channels to recover from inactivating, reducing overall firing

16

carbamezapine mech

increases Na refractory period making longer inactivation and decreasing AP firing

17

free nerve endings

pain/temperature
c-slow unmelyinated type
Adelta-fast, myelinated type
on all skin, some viscera

18

Meissner corpuscles

dynamic, fine/light touch, position sense
large myelinated fibers, adapt quickly
on glabrous (hairless) skin

19

Pacinian corpuscles

vibration/pressure
large myelinated fibers, adapt quickly
deep skin layers, ligaments, joints

20

Merkel discs

pressure, deep static touch (shapes/edges), position sense
large myelinated fibers adapt slowly, fingertips, superficial skin

21

RUffini corpuscles

pressure, slippage of objects along joint skin, joint angle change
dendritic endings with capsule, adapt slowly
fingertips, joints

22

nucleus accumbens

GABA
down in HD, anxiety

23

locus ceruleus

NE
up in anxiety
down in depression

24

ventral tegmentum and SN pars compacta

dopamine
up in HD
down in PD, depression

25

Raphe nuclei (pons, medulla, midbrain)

serotonin
down in depression, anxiety

26

basal nuclei of myenert

ACh
down in alzheimers, huntintons
up in PD

27

tongue innervation

taste: ant 2/3 VII via chorda typmani, post 1/3 IX (glossopharyngeal)
Pain: ant 2/3 via V3 mandibular, post 1/3 IX
motor: styloglossus (taco) genoglossus, hypoglossus via XII hypoglossal, palatoglossal via X

28

organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis

OVLT
in hypothalamus
-area not protected by BBB
-senses change in osmolarity

29

area postrema

in hypothalamus
not protected by BBB
-responds to emetics

30

supraoptic nuclues

in hypothalamus
makes ADH

31

paraventricular nucleus

in hypothalamus
makes oxytocin

32

lateral hypothalamus

hunger
-if injured anorexia, FTT in infants

33

ventromedial area of hypothalamus

satiety (stimulated by leptin)
-if injured majes you fat

34

anterior hypothalamus

cooling, parasympathetic

35

posterior hypothalamus

heating, parasymptathetic
if injured-cold blooked "poikilotherm"

36

suprachiasmatic nucleus

circadian rhythmm
-causes NE release which acts on the pineal gland to release melatonin

37

At night, BATS Drink Blood

Sleep cycle EEG pattern:
Awake (eyes open): Beta
Awake (eyes closed): Alpha
NREM stage 1: theta
NREM stage 2: sleep spindles and K complexes
NREM stage 3: delta (lowest frequency, high amp)
REM: Beta

38

kluver bucy syndrome

damage to amygdala
disinhibted personality, hypersexual, hyperphagia, hyperorality

39

gerstmann syndrome

damage to dominant parietal-temporal lobe
-agraphia, acalcula, finger agnosia, left-right disorientation

40

wing beating tremor, psychosis, cirrhosis

wilsons dz
damage to lentiform nucleus -putamen, GP

41

clasp knife spasticity

damage to internal capsule-get initial resistance then release
no upper motor block of spinal stretch reflex

42

central post stroke pain syndrome

after thalamic stroke, allodyina and dysesthesia (pain with things that would normally not cause any pain)

43

riluzole

treatment for ALS
glutamate antagonist

44

B12 vs tabes dorsalis

B12-demyelination of spinocerebellar, dorsal columns, corticospinal
Tabes dorsalis-demyelination of dorsal columns

45

poliomyeltis csf

increase WBC
slight increase in protein
no change in glucose
-damage to anterior horns (LMN)

46

SMA-werdnigg hoffman

AR
LMN destruction of anterior horns
death by 7 months
floppy baby

47

parinaud syndrome

paralysis of conjugate verticla gaze due to lesion of superior colliculus (commonly pinealoma ie germinoma or aqeuductal compression-obstructive hydrocephalous

48

APP, prenisilin 1, presnisilin 2

increased risk for early onset AD
APP=amyloid precursor protein

49

Apoe4

increased risk of AD

50

Apoe2

decreased risk of AD

51

CSF in GBS

increased protein with normal cell count
albuminocytologic dissociation

52

Krabbe disease

AR lysosomal storage disorder due to deficiency of galactocerebrosidase leading to the buildup of galactocerebroside and psychosine which destroy myelin
-p/w peripheral neuropathy, developmental delay, optic atrophy, globoid cells

53

metachromic leukodystrophy

AR lysosomal storage disorder due to deficiency of arylsulfatase A with resulting buildup of sulfatides, impaired production and destruciton of myelin sheath
-central AND peripheral demylination with ataxia and dementia

54

progressive multifocal leukodystrophy PML

associated with JC virus
CNS disruption of oligodendrocytes
in AIDS pts
rapidly progressive usually fatal
increased risk with natalizumab rituximab

55

adrenoleukodystrophy

AR
disruption of metabolism of long chain fatty acids leading to excess buildup in nervous system, adrenal glands, testes,
can lead to long term coma/death and adrenal crisis

56

STURGE

Sporadic, port wine Stain
Tram track calcification
Unilateral
Retardation
Glaucoma, GNAQ gene
Epilepsy

57

HAMARTOMAS

Hamartomas in CNS and skin
Angiofibromas/angiomyolipomas (bilateral)
Mitral regurgitation
Ash leaf spots
Rhabdomyoloma (cardiac)
TUBEROUS SCLEROSIS
dOminant (autosomal)
Mental retardation
Angiomyolipomas
Seizures/shaggreen patches
increased incidence of subependymal astrocytomas and ungual fibromas(growth under toes/fingernails)

58

von Hippel Lindau diseae

Autosomal Dominant
hemangioblastomas (in retina, cerebellum, brainstem, spine)
pheochromocytomas
angiomatosis (cavernous hemangiomas in skin, mucosa, organs)
bilateral renal cell carcinomas

59

Neurofibromatosis I

NFI gene on chromosome 17
cafe au lait
lisch nodules(pigmented iris hamartomas)
cutaneous neurofibromas
optic gliomas
pheochromocytoma

60

GBM

grade IV astrocytoma, highly malignant
stain for GFAP
-histo: pseudopalisading pleomorphic tumor cells-border central ares of necrosis and hemorrhage

61

Meningoma

near surfaces of brain, extra-axial, arises from arachnoid cells-
+/- tail=dural attachment
histo: spindle cell, concentrically in whorled pattern, psamomma bodies

62

oligodendroglioma

chicken wire pattern of capillaries
-slow growing usually at frontal lobe
-fried eggs-round nuclei with clear cytoplasm

63

pilocytic astrocytoma

low grade-usually in posterior fossa (ie cerebellum)
GFAP +, low grade
-histo: rosenthal fibers-eosinophilic corkscrew fibers, spindle cells with hairlike glial processes
-cystic + solid (gross)

64

medulloblastoma

highly malignant cerebellar tumor
possibility of drop mets, obstructive hydrocephalous
-histo: homer wright rosettes, small blue cells (deeply basophilic with scant cytoplasm), sheets of primitive cells with many mitotic figures

65

ependymoma

usually in 4th ventricle
causes obs hydrocephalous,
GFAP
poor prognosis
histo: perivascular resettes, rod shaped blepharoplasts (basal ciliary bodies) found near nucleus

66

craniopharyngioma

causes bitemporal hemianopia
HA, visual changes, growth failure,
from rathke pouch remants
-cystic calcification

67

uncal/transtentorial herniation

ipsi fixed/dilated pupil
ipsi oculomotor paralysis (down and out)
ispi hemiparesis-->contra corticospinal tract (contra crus cerebri) at Kernohan notch
contra homonymous hemianopia with macular sparing (PCA)

68

cingulate (subfalcine) herniation under falx cerebri

can compress ACA (lower motor weakness)

69

cribiform plate

CNI

70

superior orbital fissure

CN III, IV, V1, VI

71

foramen rotundum

V2

72

foramen ovale

V3

73

optic canal

CN II

74

foramen spinosum

Middle meningeal artery

75

internal auditory meatus

CN VII, VIII

76

jugular foramen

CN IX, X, XI

77

foramen mangum

spinal roots of CN XI

78

hypoglossal canal

CN XII

79

varibale opthalmoplegia, decreased corneal sensation, Horner syndrome, occasional decreased maxillary sensation

cavernous sinus syndrome
-2/2 pituitary tumor, carotid cavernous fistula, cavernous sinus thrombosis related to infection
-CN VI most susceptible