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Flashcards in Micro bugs Deck (130):
1

chocolate agar stain

H influenza
+ factor V (NAD+) and X (hematin)

2

Thayer-Martin agar

Neisseria (gonorrhea and meningitidis)
-Vancomysin (nhibits gram +)
Trimethop[rim Colistin Nystasin (inhibts fungi)
"very typically cultures Neisseria

3

Bordet Gengou agar
Rgan lowe medium

B pertussis

4

tellurite agat,
loffler medium

C Diptheria

5

Lowenstein-jenson aga

M tuberculosis

6

Eatan agar

mpneumonia-requires cholesterol

7

Maconkey

lactose fermentors

8

eosin methylene blue agar

e coli

9

charcoal yeast extract with cysteine and iron

legionella

10

sabaroud agar

fungi

11

anaerobes

fusobacterium clostridium bacteroides actinomyces

12

nocardia pseudomonas mycobacterium tuberculosis

aerobes

13

obligate intracellular

chlamydia rickettsia coxiella

14

faculatative intracellular

salmonella neisseria brucella mycobacterium listeria franciesella yersinia

15

encapsulated

shine skis
strep pneumo
h. influ (a-f subtypes)
neisseria meningit (lipooligosaccharide capsule)
e coli (K capsule)
salmonella (Vi capsule)
klebsiella polysaccharide capsule
group B strep

16

protein A

s aureus binds Fc region of IgG preventing opsonization and phagocytosis

17

IgA protease

H flu Strep pneumo neisseria
-cleaves IgA and allows mucosal colonization

18

M protein

s pyogenes
-helps prevent phagopcystosis
-implicated in rheumatic fever

19

diptheriae toxin

inhibits protein synthesis-inactivated elongation factor 2

20

exotoxin A

pseudomonas,
inhibits protein synthesis
inactivates elongation factor 2

21

shiga toxin

inhibits protein synthesis
inativated 60s ribosome by removing adenine from rRNA

22

shiga like toxin (verotoxin)

EHEC
-inhibits protein synthesis
inactivated 60s ribosome by removing adenine from rRNA

23

Heat Labile toxin

ETEC
increases fluid secretion
overacitvated adenylalte cyclase increasing cAMP
-increase Cl secretion and H20 following

24

heat stabile toxin

EHEC
-increases fluid secrestion
overactivated cGMP decfaeseing resorption of Nacl and H20 in the gut

25

edema toxin

bacillus anthracis
-incrases fluid secretion
-mimics adenylate cyclase increasing cAMP

26

cholera toxin

vibrio cholera
overacitvated adenylate cyclase increasing cAMP by permanently activating Gs subunit increasing CL secretion and H20 in the gut

27

pertussis toxin

Bordetella pertussis
overactivated adenylate cyclase by diabling Gi imparing phagocytopsis to permit survival of the microbe

28

tetanospamin

c tetani
inhibits nt release
protease that inhibits SNARE-which is required for vesicular fusion and release of NTs
-prevents GABA release

29

botulinum toxin

c botulinim
inhibts Nt relsease
protease that inhibts SNARE-which is required for nt release and vesicular formation
-prevents Ach release

30

alpha toxin

c perfringes
lyses cell membrase
phospholipase/lecithinase that degrades tissues and cell membrans

31

streptolysin A

s pyogenes
lyses cell membranes
(antibodies against toxin used to diagnose rheumatic fever)

32

endotoxin

LPS found in outer membrane of all gram -
-activates macrophages-Il1-fever, TNA alpha-fever hyp[otension, NO-hypotension
-activates complement -C3a-hypotenstion/edema
c5a-neutrophil chemotaxia
activates tissue factor-coagulation cascasde-DIC

33

bacteria with lysogenic phage

shigA like toxin
botulinum toxin
cholera toxin
diptheria toxin
erythrogenic toxin of s pyogenes

34

CAMP factor production/hippurate test +

GBS
-produces CAMP factor and increases area of hemolysis formed by S aureus

35

superantigens

tss by s aureus
exotoxin A by s pyogenes

36

dextrans

made by s viridans-bind fibrin and platelet aggregates

37

biliary tract and subacute endocarditis

enterococci
group D strep

38

subacute endocarditis and colon cancer

s bovis
group D srep

39

elek test

tests c diptheriae toxin

40

spore forming bacteria

bacillus
clostridium
coxiella (Q fever)

41

polypeptide capsule

D glutamate
anthrax

42

mediastinitis, pulm hemorrhage, shock

b. anthrax

43

reheated rice

bacillus cerues
cerulide preformed toxin emetic 1-5hr
diarrhea and GI pain 8-18 hr

44

cold deli meat

listeria
intracellular
"rocket tails"
tumbling mobility

45

only gram + that has endotoxin

listeria

46

yellow sulfur granules

actinomyces
-oral/facial abscesses that drain through sinus tracts, sulfur granules
tx: penicllin

47

cord factor

in virulent mycobacteria
-inhibits macrophage maturation and induces release of tna alpha

48

m scrofulaceum

cervical lymphadenitis in kids

49

m marinum

hand infection in aquarium handlers

50

pneumonia with hyponatremia

legionella

51

pyocyanin

green-blue pigment produced by pseudomonas

52

ecthyma gangrenosum

rapidly progressive necrotic cutaneous lesion baused by pseudomonas

53

burn victims

pseudomonas

54

CF

pseudomonas
-mucoid polysaccharide

55

hot tub folliculitis

pseudomonas

56

EIEC

invasive E coli like shigella

57

ETEC

produces heat stabile and heat labile toxines-travelers diarrhea, watery

58

EPEC

adheres to apical surface
in pediatrics

59

EHEC

shiga toxin producing 0157:H7
-hemolytic uremic syndrome
-acute renal failre, anemia, thrombocytopenia
microthombi on damaged endothelium
-
-non sorbital fermenting (differentiates it from other ecoli)

60

asp pneumonia, abscess in lung and liver, alcoholics, diAbetics

klebsiellaaaa
-lobar or upper pneumonia

61

currante jelly sputum

kelbsiella

62

K 1 polysaccharide capsule

e coli-pneumonia

63

fimbriae

e coli
uti

64

rose spots on abdomen, constipation, abdominal pain, fever

typhoid fever
salmonella thyphoid
-can invade gallbladder and cause carrier state-excreted with bile in feces

65

Vi capsule

salmonella typhi (im vaccine has Vi capsular polysacchardie)

66

beta hemolytic

s aureus
listeria
gas s pyogenes
gbs s agalactiae

67

key to shigella pathogenicity

invasion
-even if produce little to no toxin still virleunt

68

spirochetes

borrelia (big), leptospira and treponema

69

weil disease

icterohemorrhagic leptospirosis
-jaundice and azotemia from liver and kidney dysfunction, fever, hemorrhage and anemia

70

water contaminated with animal urine

leptospirosis-flulike symptoms, myalgia (calves), jaundice, photophobia with conjunctival suffusion (erythema with no exudate,) surfers and in tropics

71

maculopapular rash wtih constitutional symptoms, on palsm and soles, condylomata lata

secondary syphilis

72

latent syphillis

+ serology with no symptoms

73

gummas
aortitis
tabes dorsalis

chronic granulomas
vasa vasorum destruction
+ argyll robertson pupil-consticts with accomodation but nonreactive to light
-borad based ataxia, + romberg, charcot joints, stroke without htn
TERTIARY syphillis

74

rhagades (linear scars at angle of mouth,) nasal discharge, saddle nose, notched teeth, mulberry molars, short maxilla, saber shins CN VIII deafness

congenital syphillis

75

jarisch herxheimer reaction

flu-like syndrome after antibiotics are started-due to killed bacteria (usually spirochetes) releasing endotoxins

76

monocytes with morulae in cytoplasm

erlichiosis
tick vector

77

granulocytes with morulae in cytoplasm

anaplasmosis
tick is vector

78

Q fever

pneumonia
coxiella burnetii (no arthropod vector)
-inhaled as aeorsols from cattle/sheep
-culture - endocarditis

79

most common cause of culture negative endocartitis

coxiella burnetii

80

chlamydia A,B,C

chronic,
cause blindness in Africa due to follicular conjunctivits

81

chlamydia D-K

urethritis, PID

82

chlamydia L1, L2, L3

lymphogranuloma venereum
-samll; painless ulcers on genitals

83

cold agglutinis

mycoplasma oneumonia
walking pneumonia
military recturits
can lyse RBCs grow on eaton agar
can ccause SJS
joint pain
no cell wall-phosphplipid bilauer

84

india ink mucicarmine

cyrptococcus

85

rhinocerebral/frontal lobe abscesses, cavernous sinus thrombosis

mucor and rhizopus
-in diabetic pts

86

chorioretinitis hydrocephalous intracranial calcifications

congenital toxo
-cysts in meat oocytes in cat feces

87

enlarged lymph nodes, recurring fever, somnolence, coma

african sleeping sickness
-due to trypanosoma brucie
-caused by tsetse fly-painful bite

88

48 hr cycle with dormant form

p vivax/ovale
hypnozoite dormant form in liver
-add primaquine to treatment for hypnozoite

89

severe/irregular malaria cycle

p. falciparum
-severe irregular patterns, parasitized RBCs-cerebral malaria in capillaries, kidneys, lungs
-

90

malarial 72 hr cycle

p. malariae
-

91

schuffner stippling

red granules in RBC seen in P vivax/ovale

92

malaria treatment

chloroquine (blocks heme polymerase)
-if resistant use mefloquine/atovaquone/proguanil
if life threatening
-iv quinidine, artesunate
if Pvivax/ovale
add primaquine for hypnozoite

93

unilateral periorbital swellin

romana signs
chagas
trypansoma cruzi
reduviid bug
tx benznidazole or nifurtimox

94

visceral leishmaniasis

spiking fevers, HSM, pancytopenia
sandfly bus
-macrophages with amastigotes

95

green vag dc

trichomonas vaginalic (vs gardinella (BV)white dc)
-strawberry cervix
trophozoites(motile) on wet mount

96

intestinal infection with ileocecal valve obstruction

ascaris lumbricoides
-tx bendazole

97

intestinal infection that may feel like PUD

stronglyoides
-tx bendazole

98

anal pruritus

enterobius vermicularis
-tx bendazoles

99

intestinal infection with anemia

ancylostoma duodenalse, necator americanus
-hookworms
tx bendazole or pyrantel pamoate

100

fecer vomiting nausea periorbital edema myalgia

trichinois-eat undercooked meat-pork
-trichinella spiralis
-larva enter eintestine and bloodsteram an dencyst in striated muscle cells

101

hyperpigmented skin and river blindess

onchocera volvulus
-female blackfly bite
-tx ivermectine (ivermectin for river blindness)

102

swellin g in skin, workm in conjunctiva

loa loa
-deer fly, horse fly, mango fly
-tx: diethylcarbamazine

103

elephantitis

worms block lymph vessles
-female mosquito
tx: dietthylcarbamazine

104

viscieral larva migrans

toxocara canis
tx bendazoles

105

t solium/d latum/

neurocystocercosis
b12 def-megaloblastic anemia
tx: praziquanteal

106

hydatid cysts in liver

echinococcus granlusos-must inject cyst with ethanol or hyp[ertonic saline before resection
-(tapeworm like d latum and t solium)
-tx albendazole

107

painless hematuria and pulm htn

schistomsoma
-s mansoni
s haematobium-scc of the bladder
tx: praziquantel

108

pigmented gallstones

clonorchis sirence
-undercooked fish
-biliary tract inflammation leading to pigmented gallstones
cholangiocarcinoma
tx: praziquantel

109

live vax

small pox
yellow fever
rotavirus
chicken pox
sabin polio virus
MMR
influenza

110

killed vax

rabies
influenza
salk polio
HAV vax

111

high fever, black vomitus, jaundice
councilman bodies

yellow fever virus
-flavivirus
councilman bodies: eosinohpilic apoptotic globules on liver biopsy

112

most impt cause of infantile gastroenteritis

rotavirus
-dsRNA (reovirus)
in daycare centers, kindergartens

113

hemagglutinin

inflenza-promotes viral entry

114

neuramidase

promotes progeny virion release

115

genetic shift

reassortment of viral genome segments
-causes pandemics

116

genetic drift

minor changed based on random mutation in hemagglutinin or neuramindase genes
-causes epidemics

117

postauricular lyphadenopathy

rubella virus

118

surface F

fursion protein in paramyxoviruses (parainfluenza, rsv, measles, mumps) causes resp endothelial cells to fuse and form multinucleated giant cells
-palivizumab is monoclonal antibpdy against this given to neonates

119

SSPE

subacute sclerosing panencephalitis
-occurs years after measles infection
-cough, corysa, koplik spots,

120

complications of measles

pnuemonia,SSPE, encephalitis

121

parotitis orchitis meningitis

mumps-paramyxovirus

122

negri bodies

cytoplasmic inclusions
found in purkinje cells of injected rabies virus

123

councilman bodies

in yellow fever virus and hepatitis

124

env

gp120/gp41
-formed from cleavage of gp160
-envelope glycoproteins
gp120 attaches to CD4+ T cell
gp 41 necessary for fusion and entry

125

gag

p 24-capsid protein

126

pol

reverse transcriptase, synthesizes DNA from RNA dsDNA integrates into host genome

127

PDA cataracts deafness

congenital rubella

128

periventricular calcifications hearing loss seizures petechial rash

CMV congenital

129

intracellular bacteria

chlamydia legionella listeria mycobacterium neisseria nocardia rickettsia salmonella

130

fitz high curtis syndrome

PID leading to infection of the liver capsule and violin string adhesions of the peritoneum to the liver