Neuro Dysfunction of the Child Flashcards Preview

Module 5 > Neuro Dysfunction of the Child > Flashcards

Flashcards in Neuro Dysfunction of the Child Deck (30):
1

if the pupils are dilated 5+ what does this indicate

brain stem damage

2

if pt has sudden appearance of fixed/dilated pupils what should be done

stay with pt and hit call light immediately

3

pull to the core
dysfunction of cerebral cortex or lesions above brainstem

decorticate (flexion)

4

majority of difference is in arms
dysfunction at midbrain or lesions to brainstem
last sign before brain deterioration

decerebrate (extension)

5

CM of ICP

HA
vomiting
personality changes
irritability
fatigue
Infants: tense, bulginf fontanel
separated sutures
high pitch cry
increased FOC
distended scalp veins
setting sun sign

6

what is late sign of ICP

bradycardia

7

what is normal ICP

<15

8

what medication reduces ICP by promoting rapid excretion of Na by the kidneys and works within 1-5 min

mannitol

9

how should you care for an increased ICP pt

HOB up (at least 30)
pain control
minimal stimulaiton
suctioning contraindicated
generally need cooling blanket
stool softeners

10

what are halmarks of concussion

confusion and amnesia

11

if there is a basilar skull fracture what should you NOT do

do NOT place NGT you can do OGT instead

12

what are s/s of basilar skull fx

sub q bleeding in posterior neck
raccoon eyes
blood around tympanic membrane
clear CSF draining from nose or ear

13

blood accumulates between dura and skull

epidural hemorrhage

14

bleeding between dura and cerebrum

subdural hemorrhage

15

inflammation of the membranes covering the brain and spinal cord (medical emergency)

bacterial meningitis

16

what is a sign specific to bacterial meningitis

nuchal rigidity
kerning sign- flex the knee and try to extend
brudzinski sign- flex head and knee or hips flex

17

where is a lumbar puncture done

L3-L5

18

decreased glucose
positive gram stain
turbid or cloudy urine

bacterial meningitis

19

normal glucose
negative gram stain
clear urine

viral meningitis

20

how can meningitis be prevented

Hib vaccine

21

inflammatory process of the CNS resulting in inflammation of the brain

encephalitis

22

what typically causes encephalitis

virus

23

if encephalitis caused by herpes simplex virus what medication is given

acyclovir

24

what is the cardinal sign a child has rabies

hydrophobia= attempts at swallowing cause spasm of pharynx, neck, and diaphragm

25

if a child has rabies how many immunizations will they receive within 28 days

6

26

when a pt gets bit by rabid animal, why is suturing avoided

because you don't want to enclose it inside body (clean with soap and water)

27

a NON progressive disorder of muscle control or coordination

cerebral palsy

28

is there a cure for cerebral palsy

no it is permanent

29

acute demyelination with a progressive, usually ascending flaccid paralysis

guillian barre syndrome

30

what is the hallmark symptom of guillan barre

acute peripheral motor weakness (paralysis usually occurs 10 days after nonspecific viral infection)