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Flashcards in Neuro Study guide questions test 1 Deck (170):
1

What makes up the PNS

cranial and spinal Nerves

2

Sensory receptors transduce NRG into _____

electrochemical signals
- then it enters into the PNS

3

what are the 2 parts that make u the PNS

somatic - skeletal
autonomic- S.M (visceral)

4

Name the characteristics of the motor neuron in the Somatic NS

SC--> MYELINATED somatic M neuron --> Ach: contraction of skeletal M

5

What is the NT used by the somatic NS to contract M

Ach

6

What kind of M does the somatic NS innervate

skeletal

7

Is the somatic NS voluntary or involuntary

voluntary

8

List the characteristics of the neurons in the ANS

SC
pregg (mostly myelinated)
Ach autonomic gg
postgg (unmyel)
Ach or NE: contraction of SM/Cardiac M , stim/inhib of glandular secretion

9

What NT is present at the synapse of the ANS

AcH

10

What NT is present at the post gg of ANS

Ach or NE

11

Is the ANS voluntary or involuntary

involuntary

12

Support cells of the NS

glia

13

___ cells form myeline

glia

14

name the different cell types you'll find in the Nervous tiss

neurons
glia

15

Fxn of Nucleus (3)

transcription
replication
DNA repair

16

Dendrite fxn (3)

helps to commuicate with other nerves
increases surface area
leads to the soma

17

Soma

wher the nucleus is housed

18

Myelin Sheath

fatty covering of the axon
covers all somatic nervous cells
covers some autonomic PREgg
made from glia

19

Node of ranvier

whre ions can flow back into the axon
Where the axon is un-insulate by myelin and is capable of generating an AP

20

Internode

portion of N fibers btw two node of ranvier

21

Axon terminal

an axon can have any amount of terminals but only on axon

22

terminal button

a bulge area where an axon terminal comes into contact with another axon

23

What is the most common neuron type

multipolar

24

Dorsal root neurons are ___polar

pseudounipolar
- 1 goes to the peripheral
-1 goes to the SC

25

What is the difference btw an axon and a dendrite

axon: conducts electrical stim AWAY from the cell body

dendrite: RECEIVES stim from other cells and sends it to the soma

26

name the 4 types of glia cells in the CNS

astrocytes
Oligodendrocytes
Microglia
ependymal cells

27

Where are oligodendrocytes and Schwanna cells located

both- myelinate axons

oligo: CNS
Schwann- peripheral

28

What is the difference btw a synapse and synaptic cleft

synapse: STRUCTURE that permits a neuron to pass an electrical or chem signal to another cell

Synaptic cleft: small space btw two neurons

29

axon hillock

wher the cell body connects to the axon

last site in the soma where membrane potentials propagate from synaptic inputs are summed before being transmitted

30

What type of nervous tiss divides

glia cells

-neurons do not divide

31

_____ synthesis proteins in the neuron

Nissl body

- Rough ER

32

Name of a cluster of cell bodies in the CNS and PNS (2)

CNS: nuclei

PNS: ganglion

33

___ is a collection of axons in the CNS
____ is a collection of axons in the PSN

CNS: tracts

PNS: nerves

34

______ gated channgels in the axon terminal mediate vescile binding and release of NT

voltage gated Ca+2 channels

binding and release of NT

35

Vesciles are tied to the active zone by (2) proteins until they can be released

actin
synaptophysin

36

_____ helps to withdraw vesicles back up into the synaptic cleft after actin and synaptophysin released the NT

clathrin

37

____ carries a nutrients down the microtubule to axon terminal
This is called ___

kinesis

antegrade transport

38

_____ carries material from the axon terminal and sending them back to the cell body

dynelin

retrograde

39

___ help N growth, migration through retrograde transport

neurotrophins

- neurons like to grow towards growth factor

40

_____: when there is a balance btw electrical and chem forces

equilibrium potential

41

What are 2 major forces that act on an individual ion to determine its movement into or out of a neuron

1. potential nrg from chem conc gradient
2. potential nrg from separation of charges

42

What is Nearst potential based off

electrochemical forces (mV)


K : -87mV
Na+: 60mV
Cl- -64mV

43

Reversal potential is based off

when there is only ONE ion affecting the membrane
(ex: K+ leaky channels and electrical forces

44

Resting membrane potential (RMP) is based off

conc. gradient and cells permeability

45

What is the range for normal resting membrane potential values for a neuron

-65mV to -95mV

46

What kind of channels are specifically responsible for creating a graded membrane potential?

Keaky ion
Ligand gated
voltag gated

47

___ above RMP, the voltage gated channel will be set off

+20mV

48

Voltage gated channels have a ___ feedback mechanism

positive feedback
- making it all or none

49

What kind of ion channels are responsible for EPSP

Na+ ligand gated and voltage gated

50

What kind of ion channels are responsible for IPISP

Cl- channels

51

What kind of ion channels are responsible for EPSP

Na+ ligand gated and voltage gated

52

What kind of ion channels are responsible for IPISP

Cl- channels

53

___: the degree to which ion channels are open for a given area on the cell membrane

conductance

- inverse of resistance

54

increase conductance = incr____ & ___

amt of channels open at the same time
time the channel is open

55

name 2 locations where resistance affects current

membrane
cytoplasm

56

the bigger the diameter of the axon = higher ____

velocity

57

What type of ion channels are responsible for NT release

voltage gated Ca+2 channels

58

the activation of _____ causes the release of vesicles from actin to be brought into the cleft

calmodulin

59

_____ helps to withdraw vesicle components back from the synpatic cleft

clathrin

60

There is a ___ amount of NT released for each AP

fixed amount

- unless the neuron was activated 3x in a row= quanta

61

Tetrodotoxin blocks ___ channel

voltage gated Na+ channel

- no AP
- death, zombie

62

Botulinum blocks ___ channel

blocks vesicle fusion at the neuromuscular jxn

- actin can not move myosin

63

Apamin blocks ___ channel

K+ channel
- no repolarization
- spams

64

curare blocks ___ channels

nicotinic receptors of Ach

M weakness

65

____ potentials are all or none

Action potentials

- verses Graded potential that has EPSP and IPSP

66

AP are the sum result of ___ potentials

graded potentials

67

ionotrophic channels are ___ gated

ligand gated

68

What is GPCR

g protein
- it acts as a secondary receptor for metabotrophic binding

69

Name the three ionotrophic exitatory AA

AMPA : Na+ influx
kainate
NMDA: depolarization

70

What is the most prevalent excitatory NT

glutamate

71

ionotrophic & metabotrophic receptors of glutamate

Ionotrophic: AMPA , kainite, NMDA
Metabotrophic: MGLUR

72

ionotrophic & metabotrophic receptors of GABA

ionotrophic: GABA A
Metabo: GABA B , GIRK

73

ionotrophic & metabotrophic receptors of Ach

ionotrophic: nicotinic
metabotrophic: Muscarinic

74

___ is a AA NT inhibitor that triggers IPSP by expelling K+

GIR"K"

75

Muscarinic receptors are found in the ___

CNS

76

Nicotinic receptors are found in the ____

PNS

77

Why would you treat myasthenia gravis with an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor

Blocking acetylecholinesterase allows the enzyme to be around longer in the motor end plate. This allows the NT a bigger chance to stim the receptor site

78

What are the brains major centers of dopamine synthesis

substania nigra
ventral tegmental area (VTA)

79

What area is involved in dysfunctional signaling of dopamine in parkingsons dx

substantia nigra

80

What area is involved in dysfunctional signaling of dopamine in addictions and schizophrenia

ventral tegmental area

81

What are dopamine receptors

D1= excitatory
D2 = inhib
GPCRs

82

what is the major area of NE production

Locus Seruleus in the pons

83

What type of receptrs does NE use

2 alpha & 2 beta

84

What will inactivate dopamine and NE

MAO
- MAOI will bloc this and allow the NT to continue = tx for depression

85

What is the brains major area of serotonin synthesis

raphe nuclei of the brainstem (midbrain)

86

____ is used in meds to decrease the reuptake of serotonin into the presynaptic cell

SSRI

87

_____ is a neuropeptide that is co-released withglutamate that makes us feel tired

adenosine

88

Why does caffein prevent us from falling asleep

it is the antagonist of adenosine
- it blocks the receptor sites of adenosine in the post synaptic receptor

89

Which develops first : neurons, neuropils, or glia

neurons first
neuropil and glia are produced after birth

90

From what can a totipotent cell develop?

Morula→ there are enough cells at this point that can make a fetus

91

From what can a pluripotent cell develop?

late blastocyst

92

What is gastrulation

when cell diff begins
transformation from bilayer to trilayer embry
produces 3 germ layers

93

Name the 3 germ layers and what comes from each of them

ecto- skin, NS
medoderm- skeletal and M
endo- Gut tube

94

What is neurulation ? And what appears first

neural tube closing
plate--> groove --> tube

95

neural induction follows gastrulation from morphogens acting on ___

ectoderm

96

The block of which morphogen keeps ectoderm from developing into epidermis

BMP
- notochord blocks BMP so the tiss turns into neural tiss

97

What is the major differ btw spina bifida and anencephaly

spina bifida = incomplete CAUDAL neural tube closure

anencephaly= incomplete ROSTRAL neural tube closure

98

diffferent btw meningocele and meningomyelocele

meningocele: CSF and Meninges

Meningomyelocele: SC, CSF, and meninges

99

What are the three primary vesicles that form in the rostral end of the neural tube?

prosencephalon - forebrain
mesencephalon- midbrain
rhombencephalon- hindbrain

100

The rhombencephalon divdes into __ & ___

metencephalon & myelencephalon

101

The prosencephalon divides into ___ & ___

diencephalon & telencephalon

102

Name the 5 vesicles

diencephalon
telencephalon
mesencephalon
metencephalon
myelencephalon

103

What is the pontine flexure

where the rhombencephalon separates to metencephalon & myelencephalon

104

___ is btw the rhombencephalon and SC

cervical flexure

105

___ is btw the mesencephalon and prosencephalon

cephalic flexure

106

structures from the telencephalon

cerebral cortex
corpus striatum / basal gg

107

structures from the diencephalon

thalamus
hypothalmus
retina

108

Structures from the mesencephalon

Midbrain

109

Structures from the metencephalon

cerebellum
pons

110

Structures that come from the myelencephalon

medulla

111

What is neuraxis

- neural tube
- axis of the CNS
- denotes the direction in which the CNS lies

112

Which structures are c-shaped in the brain?

corpus callosum
basal gg
hippocampus
choroid plexus/ ventricular system

113

which molecule acts as a morphogen to dictate neuronal identity to become MOTOR/EFFERENT

sonic hedgehog

- expressed in the notochord & floorplate

114

which molecule acts as a morphogen to dictate neuronal identity to become SENSORY/ AFFERENT

Bone Morphogenetic protein (BMP)

expressed in the dorsal; expressed n epidermis

115

What kind of cells are located in the mantle zone of the neural tube

cell bodies
- become grey matter in adults

116

What kind of cells are located in the marginal zone of the neural tube

axons
- they becone the white matter in adults

117

Radial glial cells can develop into ___ or go into the ___ phase

neurons

- or go into the gliogenic phase

118

characteristics of the neurons that develop from basal-plate derivatives

ventral / anterior horn

119

characteristics of the neurons that develop from alar-plate derivatives

dorsal- posterior horn

120

______: divides the neural tube 1/2 way btw the dorsal and ventral

sulcus limitans

121

The roof plate spreads out and becomes mostly ____

ependymal (choroid plexus)

122

The basal plate in the medulla gives of the ___ nuclei for CN __ through ___

Motor nuclei
CN VII- XII

123

The alar plate in the medulla gives of the ___ nuclei for CN __ through ___

sensory nuclei
for CN VII -X

124

How is development different in the telencephalon than it is in the other brain areas?

develops in 2 phases
1. archipallum
2. corpus striatum

the neocortex develops into 6 layers

125

What is the numbering and organization of the layers of the cerebral cortex? Which cells are oldest? Youngest?

youngest: layer 1 (mostly die)
oldest: Layer 6

126

Which neocortex layer receive S /M

Sensory: Layer IV
Motor : Layer V

127

The neutral tube makes the __nervous system

CNS

- neural crest makes the PNS

128

The neural crest makes the ___ nervous sytem

PNS
- the neural tube makes the CNS

129

What kind of cells arise from the neural crest

- Peripheral nervous system
- Autonomic ganglia
- Spinal nerves
- Schwann cells
- Melanocytes
- Adrenal medullary cells
- Pia mater
- Arachnoid mater
- Tendons of facial musculature

130

Somites derive from the medoderm and make ___(3)

dermatome: epidermal
myotome: M
sclerotome : bone

131

Neural crest cells around the trunk sclerotome become what special class of neurons

dorsal root gg

132

What type of neurons will develop around the sacral spinal cord?

PS gg

133

What vesicle is the archicortex, paleocortex, and neocortex derived from ? How many layers are in ea.

Archi: 3 layers; hippocampus
Paleo: 3-5; olfactory
Neo: 6 layers; outer cerebral hemisphere

134

What are the 5 lobes of the neocortex?

- frontal
- parietal
- temporal
- occipital
- limbic

135

What are the major functions associated with the frontal lobe?

voluntary Motor
human traits, personality
higher order thinking
decision making
motor and metacognition

136

What are the major functions associated with the temporal lobe?

hearing
taking in visual

137

What are the major functions associated with the parietal lobe?

how am I taing up space?
know what you are seing
know what you are feeling
understand 3D shapes
visualize based on sense

138

What are the major functions associated with the occipital lobe?

visual

139

What are the major functions associated with the limbic lobe?

feelings and emotions

140

What lobe is brocca's area located?

frontal (L)

141

What lobe is wernicke's located on

temporal

142

___ sulcus splits the cuneus and lingual visual fields

calcarine sulcus

143

Where is the insula located

where hte temporal, parietal and frontal lobes meet
- primary gustaory cortex

144

primary gustatory cortex is the ____

insula

145

Area 4

primary Motor cortex

146

area 6

premotor supplimentary motor

147

area 8

frontal eye field

148

Area 9,10,11, and 46

prefrontal cortex

149

area 44,45,47

brocas area

150

Area 1,2,3

somatosensory (ass. cortex)

151

Area 41,42

primary auditory cortex

152

Area 22

wernick's area

153

Fxn of associated fibers, commissural fibers, projection fibers

associated fibers: pass from 1 part of a single hemi to another , small point to point connections

Commissural fibers: link matching areas of two hemispheres (ex: corpus collosum )

Projection fibers: run to subcortical nuclei

154

different fxn between right and left brain

left: speech, logic, language

right: spatial orientation and attention, song , art

155

What is the difference btw broccas and wenicke's

brocca: motor speech
wenicke's: interpretation and production of senstences
("W"enick's WHAT did he say?)

156

fluent aphagia deals with __ area

wernick's

157

non fluent aphagia deals with ___ area

broccas

158

Name the 4 different levels of projection fibers

coronal radiate
internal capsule
crus cerebri
pyramid

159

fxn ass. with basal gg

chains and sequences of motor activity

160

fxn of cerebellum

proprioception

161

What sensation doesnt travel through the thalmus

olfactory

162

fxn of the hypothalmus

controls ANS and neuroendocrine systems

163

location of the micturation center

pons

164

fxn of the medulla

vitals fxn
respiration
cardiac
consciouscess center
pathway for ascending and descending info

165

normals vs. pathological spaces in the meninges

epidural & subdural = patho

subarachniod = normal

166

What space belongs in the cranial meninges

subarachnoid

167

What meningeal layer feels pain?

only the dura feels pain
- pain is referred pain

168

What nerves affect the post. dura

CN x, C1,2,3

169

What nerves affect the ant dura

CN5

170

What is the deep cerebral V

great vein of galen
- emerges with the inf. sagittal sinus & becomes the straight sinus