Neuroanatomy Flashcards Preview

Y3 Medicine > Neuroanatomy > Flashcards

Flashcards in Neuroanatomy Deck (143):
1

What are the 3 visible swellings/vesicles in the neural tube early in development?

Prosencephalon
Mesencephalon
Rhomboencephalon

2

What are the further subdivision of the vesicles of the neural tube?

Telencephalon, Diencephalon - Prosencephalon
Mesencephalon (same)
Metencephalon, Myelencephalon - Rhomboencephalon

3

What derives from the secondary vesicle - Telencephalon?

Cerebral Hemispheres

4

What derives from the secondary vesicle - Diencephalon?

Thalamus, Hypothalamus

5

What derives from the secondary vesicle - Mesencephalon?

Midbrain

6

What derives from the secondary vesicle - Metencephalon?

Pons, Cerebellum

7

What derives from the secondary vesicle - Myelencephalon?

Medulla Oblongata

8

During development, when do the primary and secondary vesicles form?

Primary - 4 weeks

Secondary - 6-8 weeks

9

What makes up the Brainstem?

Midbrain
Pons
Medulla oblongata

10

What is the function of Neurones?

Receivev information (mainly via synapses), integrate the info and transfer electrical impulses to another neuron or effector cell

11

What are the four major types of Glial cells?

Astrocytes
Oligodendrocytes
Microglia
Ependymal Cells

12

Which type of glial cells functions as a resident antigen-presenting/phagocytic cells in the brain?

Microglia

13

What's the difference between the gyrus and sulcus?

Gyrus = bump
Sulcus = indentations (deeper than sulcus = fissure)

14

What's the difference between the outer grey matter and inner white matter of the brain?

Grey matter - formed by neurons (soma/cell bodies found), synapses + support cells

White matter - only axons of neurons + support cells

15

How is the grey and white matter arranged in the spinal cord?

Grey matter on inside (cell bodies - H-shape)

White matter - outside, surrounds grey matter (axons)

16

How can you tell the orientation of the spinal cord from the grey matter?

Posterior side of the H-shaped grey matter will touch edge of spinal cord.

Anterior side of grey matter will not reach edge

17

What are the divisions of the white matter in the spinal cord?

Posterior (dorsal) column
Anterior (ventral) column
Lateral column

18

How are the anterior and posterior ends of the grey matter referred to?

Anterior (ventral) HORNS

Posterior (dorsal) Horns

19

What are the gyrus on either side of the Central Sulcus?

Precentral Gyrus (anterior)
Postcentral Gyrus (posterior)

20

What are the 4 lobes of the cerebral hemispheres?

Frontal
Parietal
Temporal
Occipital

21

Which sulcus marks the boundary between the Frontal and Parietal lobes?

Central sulcus
(continue line down from central sulcus to corpus callosum)

22

Which sulcus marks the boundary between the Parietal and Temporal lobes?

Lateral sulcus

23

What two points mark the anterior/lateral boundary of the Occipital lobe?

Parieto-occipital sulcus
to
Preoccipital Notch

24

What is the fifth hidden lobe of the cerebral hemisphere?

Insular Lobe
(important role in patient's experience of pain)

25

What are the three layers of the Meninges (superificial to deep)?

Dura mater
Arachnoid mater (subarachnoid space)
Pia mater

26

What is the deepest layer of the meninges which follows the dips of the sulcus/gyrus?

Pia mater

(dura + arachnoid just a general protective cover)

27

Between which layers of the meninges contains the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)?

Subarachnoid space between the Arachnoid space AND Pia mater

28

What is the Enteric Nervous System?

Found in digestive system (oesophagus to rectum)

Neurons found in two plexuses in walls of gut (myenteric plexus between outer layers of smooth muscle, submucosal plexus in submucosa)

29

What is the venous drainage system of the brain?

Blood from the brain drains into a system of dural venous sinuses
Then drains into internal jugular vein
Exits via Jugular Foramen

30

What is the name for the con-shaped end of the spinal cord?

Conus Medullaris

31

True or False:
The spinal meninges are continuous with the cranial meninges via the foramen magnum

TRUE

32

True or False:
The spinal cord is suspended in the canal by a ribbon of tissue on the lateral aspect called the Denticulate Ligament?

TRUE

33

True or False:
The denticulate ligament is formed of arachnoid and dura tissue?

FALSE
Formed of pial and arachnoid tissue
Attaches to dura at points along length of cord

34

What does the white matter of the spinal cord consist of?

Longitudinally oriented nerve fibres (axons), glial cells and blood vessels

35

What does the grey matter of the spinal cord consist of?

Neuronal soma, cell processes, synapses, glia and blood vessels

36

What added feature exists in the T1 to L2 spinal segments?

Lateral Horn (of grey matter)

Contains preganglionic sympathetic neruons

37

What are the three arterial supplies to the spinal cord?

Longitudinal arteries
Segmental arteries
Radicular arteries

38

What is the origin of the Longitudinal arteries and where do they run?

1 anterior and 2 posterior that originate from the vertebral arteries

Run the length of the cord

39

Where are the Segmental arteries derived from?

Vertebral, Intercostal and Lumbar arteries

40

Where do Radicular arteries travel?

Along the dorsal and ventral roots

41

What is the space between the dura and the bone called in the spinal cord?
What does it contain?

Epidural Space

Contains adipose tissue, anterior + posterior epidural venus plexuses

42

What two parts is the dorsal (posterior) column of the spinal cord?

Fasciculus gracilis
Fasciculus cuneatus

43

What sensory info does the dorsal column/medial Lemniscus system transmit?

Fine touch and conscious proprioception (particularly from upper limb)

44

Where do fibres cross in the medial lemniscus system?

Medulla

45

What is Proprioception?

Sense of self-movement and body position

46

What sensory info does the Spinothalamic tract transmit?

Carries pain, temperature and deep pressure

47

Where do fibres cross in the spinothalamic tract?

Fibres cross segmentally (at the vertebrae level they enter)

48

True or False:
The Ascending tract of the spinal cord contains motor information

FALSE
Ascending tract is sensory information
Descending tract is Motor

49

What motor functions does the Corticospinal Tract transmit?

Fine, precise movement
Particularly of distal limb muscles, e.g. digits

50

Why is the Corticospinal Tract also called the Pyramidal tract?

Tract forms visible ridges referred to as 'pyramids'on the anterior surface of the medulla

51

Where does the Corticospinal Tract (CST) fibres cross?

About 85% of fibres cross in caudal medulla at decussation of pyramids

Crossed fibres form Lateral CST
Uncrossed fibres form the Ventral CST (cross segmentally)

52

What is the Internal Capsule?

White matter structure containing ascending and descending axons going to and from the cerebellum.
All modalities travel through the internal capsule

53

What are the three motor systems outside of the pyramidal tract (aka Extrapyramidal system)?

Tectospinal Tract
Reticulospinal Tract
Vestibulospinal Tract

54

What motor functions is the Tectospinal tract involved?

Input mostly to cervical segments
Responsible for movement of head + upper body

55

What reflex is the Tectospinal tract though to be involved in?

Mediated reflex head and neck movement due to visual stimuli

56

What is the Reticular formation?

Forms the central core of the brainstem. Has many nuclei + receives input from virtually all parts of CNS

57

Where do fibres originate in the reticular formation?

Pons and Medulla

58

What is the motor function of the Reticulospinal Tract?

Pons - facilitate extensor movements + inhibit flexor movements
Medulla - opposite

59

Where do the fibres originate in the Vestibulospinal Tract?

Originate in the vestibular nuclei of pons and medulla
(in turn receive input from vestibular apparatus + cerebellum)

60

What is the motor function of the Vestibulospinal Tract?

Excitatory input to 'antigravity' extensor muscles

Pushed from behind > will stumble and catch yourself

61

What causes Brown-Sequard's Syndrome?

Lateral hemisection of spinal cord (destroys one side of spinal cord but other left intact)

62

Where is the Primary motor area?

Pre-central Gyrus

63

What attaches the brainstem to the cerebellum?

Peduncles (3 stalks)

Superior, Middle (largest) + Inferior

64

What is the function of the Peduncle?

Stump of white matter than carries fibres in and out of cerebellum

65

What are the Deep Cerebellar Nuclei?

Embedded grey matter within white matter of cerebellum

66

What are the 3 layers of the Cerebellar Cortex (outer to inner)?

Outer = Molecular layer

Middle = Purkinje cell layer

Inner = Granule cell layer

67

Where to afferents to the cerebellum tend to arrive from?

- Spinal cord (somatic proprioceptors + pressure receptors)
- Cerebral cortex (relayed via pons)
- Vestibular apparatus (vis vestibular nuclei)

68

How do afferent projections (input) enter the cerebellum

Enter via cerebellar peduncles and project mainly to granule cell layer

69

How do efferent projections (output) leave the cerebellum?

From all 3 lobes the only output is via axons of Purkinje cells
Synapse on neurons of deep cerebellar nuclei + contribute to function of all motor tracts of brain stem + spinal cord

70

Where do efferent fibres from Cerebellum cross the midline?

Most efferent axons of deep cerebellar nuclei cross the midline + synapse in the THALAMUS
Thalamus then sends fibres to motor cortex

71

What are the signs of a unilateral hemispheric lesion of the cerebellum?

Disturbance of coordination in limbs
Can result in tremor + unsteady gait in absence of weakness or sensory loss

72

What are the signs of a Bilateral cerebellar dysfunction?

Results in slowed, slurred speech (dysarthria), bilateral incoordination of arms, staggering wide-based gait (cerebellar ataxia)

73

What common thing can cause bilateral cerebellar hemisphere dysfunction?

Acute alcohol exposure

Cerebellum is very sensitive to alcohol

74

True or False:
Cerebellar hemispheres influence ipsilateral side of body = lesions lead to ipsilateral signs + symptoms

TRUE

75

What are the functions of the Basal Ganglia?

- To facilitate purposeful movement

- Inhibit unwanted movements

- Role in posture and muscle tone

76

What is a basal ganglia?

A number of masses of grey matter located near the base of each cerebral hemisphere

77

What are the 5 structures making up the basal ganglia?

Caudate nucleus
Putamen
Globus pallidus
Subthalamic nucleus
Substantia nigra

78

Which structures make up the Striatum?

Caudate nucleus +
Putamen

79

Which structures make up the Lenticular Nucleus?

Putamen +
Globus pallidum

80

Which structures make up the Corpus Striatum?

Caudate nucleus +
Putamen +
Globus pallidus

81

Why is the Substantia Nigra recognisable within the brain?

Structure stains itself black

Produces dopamine and by-product dyes structure darker colour than surrounding (neuromelanin)

82

What is the pathology of Parkinson's Disease?

Degeneration of dopaminergic neurons of substantia nigra

83

True or False:
Unilateral lesions of basal ganglia affect the ipsilateral side of body

FALSE

Affects contralateral side of body (cerebellar lesions affect ipsilateral side)

84

True or False:
Lesions of basal ganglia generally DO NOT cause paralysis, sensory loss, loss of power or ataxia

TRUE

85

What motor signs are seen with lesions of basal ganglia?

Changes in muscle tone
Dyskinesias (abnormal involuntary movements) - tremor, chorea, myoclonus

86

Why do lesions affecting the indirect pathway of the basal ganglion cause jerky movements?

Involuntary exaggerated jerky movements can occur because the inhibitory system is not preventing them

87

What is the pathology of Huntington's Disease?

Progressive degeneration of basal ganglia and cerebral cortex

88

What are some signs of Parkinson's and Huntington's Disease?

Parkinson's - akinesia, rigidity, resting tremor

Huntington's - chorea, progressive dementia

89

How many pairs of cranial nerves are there?

12

90

Name the twelve cranial nerves in order

Olfactory
Optic
Oculomotor
Trochlear
Trigeminal
Abducens
Facial
Vestibulocochlear
Glossopharyngeal
Vagus
Spinal Accessory
Hypoglossal

91

Which of the cranial nerves are purely sensory modality?

Olfactory (I)
Optic (II)
Vestibulocochlear (VIII)

92

Which of the cranial nerves are purely motor modality?

Oculomotor (III)
Trochlear (IV)
Abducens (VI)
Accessory (XI)
Hypoglossal (XII)

93

Which of the cranial nerves have mixed modality?

Trigeminal (V)
Facial (VII)
Glossopharyngeal (IX)
Vagus (X)

94

True or False:
All of the cranial nerves exit ANTERIORLY

FALSE
All exit anteriorly
EXCEPT
CN IV (trochlear) - posteriorly
CN VIII (vestibulocochlear) - laterally

95

Which of the twelve cranial nerves is the only one not the synapse in the thalamus prior to reaching the cortex?

Olfactory nerve
CN I

96

Explain the structure of the olfactory nerve where it penetrates the cribiform plate of the ethmoid bone

Olfactory tract travels through the cranium and forms the Olfactory Bulb which sits superior to cribiform plate
The olfactory nerves exit the bulb and penetrate the bone to sit within the olfactory membrane

97

What muscles does the Oculomotor nerve innervate?

Extraocular muscles - SR, MR, IR, IO
Levator pupillae sphincter

Sphincter pupillae + cilliary muscle (parasympathetic)

98

Which three cranial nerves innervate the extraocular muscles of the eye?

Oculomotor (AO3)
Trochlear (SO)
Abducens (LR)

99

Which muscles foes the Hypoglossal nerve innervate?

Genioglossus
Hypoglossus
Styloglossus
(All muscles of the tongue except one)

100

What are the three main functions of the Trigeminal nerve?

1. Somatosensation of face

2. Proprioception associated with chewing (TMJ, mastication muscles, teeth)

3. Motor Control (muscles of mastication, tensor tympani, mylohyoid, etc.)

101

What are the three parts of the trigeminal sensory nuclei?

Mesencephalic nucleus
Pontine Trigeminal Nucleus
Spinal Nucleus

102

What are the three different functions of the nuclei of the trigeminal sensory column?

Mesencephalic nucleus - Proprioception info from chewing muscles

Pontine nucleus - discriminative touch, vibration

Spinal nucleus - pain, temperature

103

What is the only site in the CNS where cell bodies of primary afferent neurones live inside the CNS?

Mesencephalic Nucleus

104

What are some of the functions of the Facial nerve?

1. Motor - muscles of facial expression, stapedius

2. Parasymp. - pterygopalatine, submandibular ganglia

3. Taste - anterior 2/3rds of tongue (via chorda tympani)

105

What are some of the functions of the Glossopharyngeal nerve?

1. Tactile sense, pain and temperature from posterior tongue, pharyngotympanic + upper pharynx

2. Taste - posterior 1/3rd tongue

3. Parasymp. - fibres to otic ganglion (parotid gland)

4. Motor - stylopharyngeus

106

What are some of the functions of the Vagus nerve?

1. Tactile sense, pain + temp sense from pharynx, larynx, trachea, oesophagus + viscera

2. Taste - epiglottis

3. Parasymp. - inn. to ganglia serving thoraxix + abdominal viscera

4. Motor - striated muscle of pharynx + larynx

107

True or False:
The motor fibres of the facial nerve loop around the abducens nucleus before reaching the facial motor nucleus

TRUE

108

What are the four nuclei of the glossopharyngeal nerve in the upper medulla?

Solitary nucleus - gustatory nucleus

Spinal Trigeminal nucleus (small region of somatosensory assoc. with ear)

Inf. Salivatory nucleus (parasymp.)

Nucleus Ambiguus (stylopharyngeus)

109

What are the 4 components of the vagus nerve in the upper medulla?

Dorsal (motor) nucleus (parasymp)

Solitary

Spinal trigeminal nucleus

Nucleus ambiguus

110

Which cranial nerves share the solitary nucleus?

VII (Facial) - ant 2/3 tongue
IX (Glossopharyngeal) - post 1/3 tongue
X (Vagus) - epiglottis

Taste + visceral sensory information

111

Which cranial nerves share the Sup. and Inf. Salivatory nuclei?

VII (Facial)
IX (Glossopharyngeal)

Parasympathetic efferents to ganglia of salivary glands + pterygopalatine ganglion)

112

Which cranial nerves share the Nucleus Ambiguus?

IX (Glossopharyngeal)
X (Vagus)

Motor efferents to muscles of pharynx, larynx + upper oesophagus)

113

What is the part of the pyramidal tract that is motor to cranial nerves?

Corticobulbar Tract

(includes fibres to the motor nuclei of CN V, VII, X, XII)

114

Which cranial nerves get input containing parasympathetic efferents?

III, VII, IX, X

115

What is the path of input to CN's containing parasymp. efferents?

- Input mainly from hypothalamus
- Efferents reach preganglionic autonomic neurons (directly + via synapses in reticular formation)

(Hypothalamus influenced by physiological status + input from many brain regions)

116

What is the Reticular Formation?

Network of loosely aggregated cells with cell bodies, axons and dendrites intermingling in central core of brainstem

117

What are the three bones of the middle ear?

Malleus
Incus
Stapes

118

What is the main cranial nerve for hearing & balance (number + name)?

CN VIII
Vestibulocochlear

119

What is the Organ of Corti?

Sensitive element in inner ear which is the receptor organ for hearing (body's microphone)
Situated on basilar membrane in one of the three compartments of the Cochlea (contains 4 rows of hair cells protruding from surface)

120

Why is the Superior Olivary nucleus important in hearing?

Important in sound localisation - knowing where the sound comes from

121

What is the bulletpoint pathway from cochlea to primary auditory cortex?

Cochlea >
Ventral cochlea nucleus + Dorsal Cochlear nucleus >
2nd order neurones ascend bilaterally >
Superior olivary nucleus >
Inferior colliculus >
Thalamus (synapse in thalamus = medial geniculate body) >
Primary auditory cortex

122

Would you be concerned about a brainstem injury if someone had unilateral hearing loss?

NO
Bilateral projection in brainstem from cochlea so a unilateral hearing loss indicates a pathology earlier in pathway

123

Which of these coloured areas shows the Primary Auditory Cortex?
INSERT PICTURE (lecture 11 - slide 9)

Green

124

Which of these coloured areas shows the Somatosensory cortex?
PICTURE

Red

125

Which of these coloured areas shows the Primary Motor Cortex?
PICTURE

Yellow

126

How is the auditory cortex tonotopically organised?

Fibres carrying info regarding LOW frequency sound end in anterolateral part of cortex

HIGH frequency sounds end in posteromedial part

127

What is Aphasia?

Inability to use language

128

What occurs if there is damage to Broca's area?

Difficulty producing language
Use few words or only say important words

Have no difficulty comprehending language

129

What occurs if there is damage to Wernicke's area?

Difficulty comprehending language
Can manifest defects ranging from words out of order to meaningless words

130

Which parts of the inner ear are important in balance?

Semicircular canals
+ Vestibular nerve (CN VIII)

131

True or False:
The projection of vestibular information onto the cerebral cortex is bilateral

TRUE

132

How are the visual fields on the retina often described?

Nasal field
Temporal field

133

What is the bulletpoint pathway from the Retina of the eye to the visual cortex?

Retina >
Optic nerve >
Optic chiasm >
Optic tract >
Lateral geniculate nucleus (of thalamus) >
Temporal or Parietal for sup./inf. fields >
Visual Cortex

134

What is the mneumonic for distinguishing between temporal and parietal as superior or inferior fields?

PITS

Parietal Inferior
Temporal Superior

135

Which of these coloured areas shows the Primary Visual Cortex?
PICTURE

Blue

136

Where does the macula project to?

Posterior pole of visual cortex

137

How is the Meyer's Loop related to the visual pathway?

- Fibres of geniculocalcarine tract initially form part of internal capsule
- Those carrying visual info from upper half of visual field LOOP ANTERIORLY around temporal part of lateral ventricle in MEYER'S LOOP
- End below calcarine sulcus

138

What are the two forms of eye movement?

Movements of command (jump/jerk, comes from frontal eye fields)

Tracking movements (smooth, controlled by visual cortex)

139

What is the Pupillary Light Reflex?

Shine light into one eye = pupil constricts (direct light reflex)
Other pupil also constricts (Consensual light reflex)

Edinger-Westphal nucleus is in midline = bilateral projection activates both eyes

140

How does the accommodation reflex involve?

Convergence of gaze
Contraction of ciliary muscles
Pupillary constriction

141

Where does the accommodation reflex require input from?

Oculomotor and Edinger-Westphal nucleus from visual cortex

142

What is Hemianopia?

Blindness for half the field of vision in one or both eyes

143

What are the three types of fibres in white matter of the cerebral hemisphere?

Association fibres (connect cortical sites in same hemisphere)

Commissural fibres (connect one hemisphere to the other)

Projection fibres (connect hemispheres to deeper structures, e.g. thalamus, corpus striatum, brainstem, spinal cord)