Neurological Signs and Consciousness Disorders Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Neurological Signs and Consciousness Disorders Deck (27):
1

What are the signs of cerebellar dysfunction?

Dysdiachokinesia
Ataxia
Nystagmus (Coarse)
Intention Tremor
Slurred Speach (dysarthria)
Hypotonia

2

What are the causes of cerebellar dysfunction?

Posterior Fossa Tumour
Alcohol
Sclerosis (Multiple)
Trauma
Rare
Inherited (Freidrichs Ataxia)
Epilepsy Medication
Stroke

3

What are the signs of an UMN Lesion?

Hypertonia
Hyperreflexia
Muscle Weakness
Late Atrophy
Positive Babinskis
Possible Clonus

4

What are the signs of a LMN Lesion?

Hypotonia
Hyporeflexia
Early Atrophy
Fasciculations

5

What is a stroke?

acute focal loss of brain function lasting more than 24 hours or leading to death

6

What is a TIA?

acute focal loss of brain function which resolves completely within 24 hours

7

What is Myasthenia Gravis?

Autoimmune reaction which blocks the ACh receptors on the post synaptic membrane.
Means ACh is just broken down by AChesterase

8

What are the signs of Myasthenia Gravis?

Easy fatiguing muscles
Extraoccular muscles most visible, cannot hold upward gaze for very long

9

Treatment for MG?

AChesterase inhibitors
Immunosupressants

10

What is a spinal stroke?

An infarct/haemorrage of the arteries that supply the spinal cord.
Most common in ASA

11

What are the signs of a spinal stroke?

Starts with muscle weakness, loss of sensation (but still have DCML sensations)
Acute
Pain
Areflexia

12

How can the signs of spinal stroke progress?

Get UMN Lesion signs

13

What is insomnia?
Causes?
Mechanism?

When you cannot get to sleep/maintain it or it is poor quality
Normally has a psychological cause, anxiety, depression etc
Increase in cortical activity increases feedback to the RF which prevents sleep

14

What is narcolepsy?
Causes?

Poor control of the sleep-wake cycle.
Due to a loss or decrease in orexin (from visual system) means that there is spontaneous sleep.
Can have emotional triggers

15

What is Parasomnia?

Sleep paralysis or abnormal movements when asleep.

16

What is Sleep Apnoea?

When the upper respiratory tract narrows during sleep causing hypoxia, waking the patient.
Also leads to snoring
Normally due to obesity and loss of tone in the airways

17

What is brain death?

When there is no EEG activity, complete damage of the brain stem and cortex

18

What is Locked In Syndrome?

When there is compression of the basilar/pontine arteries
Leads to complete loss of motor control.
Can spare the eyes

19

What is a PVS?

A persistent vegetative state
EEG is variable, can have sleep cycles.
Eyes can spontaneously open and can have reflexes/response to stimuli from brainstem.
Due to widespread cortical damage
Variable EEG

20

What is a Coma?

Widespread Cortical damage.
No voluntary movements, eyes don't open.
Variable EEG
No sleep cycle

21

What GCS defines a Coma?

<8

22

What is Delirium?

An acute confusional state.
Can be due to illness/infection/fractures/age
Takes a long time to resolve
Have impaired awareness and fluctuating arousal

23

What could a constricted but responsive pupil mean?

Metabolic lesion e.g. drugs

24

What are the signs of CN III Lesion?

Blown Pupil
Down and Out
Ptosis

25

What does a large, fixed pupil mean?

Brainstem Death
Tectal
Herniation in an unconscious patient

26

What does decorticate posture mean?
What is it?

Brainstem compression above the red nucleus
Adducted arms, flexed forearms and wrists
Damage to corticospinal tracts

27

What does decerebrate posture mean?
What is it?

Damage to upper brainstem below red nucleus
Adducted arms, extended, pronated wrists, flexed fingers. Plantarflexed and extended legs