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Flashcards in Neurology Deck (213)
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How are the alar & basal plates organized?

In closed spinal cord, alar plate (sensory) is dorsal & basal plate (motor) is ventral.

In the medulla & pons, the basal plate is medial & the alar plate is lateral. Within these, the visceral nuclei are generally closest to the sulcus limitans.

1

What are the primary vesicles?

1) Prosencephalon (forebrain)

2) Mesencephalon (midbrain)

3) Rhombencephalon (hindbrain)

2

What are the secondary vesicles?

1) Telencephalon
2) Diencephalon
3) Mesencephalon
4) Metencephalon
5) Myelencephalon

3

What does the telencephalon give rise to?

Cerebral hemispheres & lateral ventricles

4

What does the diencephalon give rise to?

Thalamus
Hypothalamus
Retina
Third ventricle

5

What does the mesencephalon give rise to?

Midbrain & cerebral aqueduct

6

What does the metencephalon give rise to?

Pons
Cerebellum
Top half of 4th ventricle

7

What does the myelencephalon give rise to?

Medulla
Bottom half of fourth ventricle

8

When does the neural tube develop?

Day 18-day 21

9

What is seen in the amniotic fluid with a neural tube defect?

^AFP
^AChE

10

What are the caudal neural tube defects?

Spina bifida occulta --> bony canal not closed, tuft of hair

Meningocele --> meninges herniate through spinal canal defect

Meningomyelocele --> meninges & spinal cord

11

What is seen with anencephaly

^AFP
Polyhydramnios (no swallowing center in brain)
No forebrain, open calvarium
"Frog-like appearance"

12

What causes anencephaly?

Maternal T1DM
Lack of folate

Anterior neural tube does not close

13

What causes holoprosencephaly?

Failure of R & L hemispheres to separate
May be due to sonic the hedgehog defect

14

What is seen with holoprosencephaly?

Cleft lip/palate
Severe form --> cyclopia

15

What is seen with congenital cerebral aqueduct stenosis?

Enlargement of lateral & third ventricles
Enlarging head circumference (sutures not yet fused)

16

What is seen with Arnold-Chiari malformation?

Type I - modest herniation, usually clinically silent

Type II:
Tonsillar herniation
Hydrocephalus
Meningomyelocele
Syringomelia

17

What is seen with Dandy-Walker malformation?

Agenesis of cerebellar vermis --> cystically enlarged 4th ventricle
The cerebellum is basically missing.
Hydrocephalus & spina bifida can be seen

18

Where is the most common site of a syringomyelia?

C8-T1

19

What is seen with a syringomyelia?

Bilateral loss of pain & temperature sensation in upper extremities
"Cape-like"
Later stages --> LMN signs of arms; Horner's syndrome
Can extend downward
Fine touch & proprioception are spared

20

What causes syringomyelia?

Trauma
Chiari I malformation

Scoliosis is a hint that syringomyelia may be present

21

What is the sensory innervation of the tongue?

Anterior 2/3:
Sensation - V3
Taste - VII

Posteior 1/3:
Sensation & taste - IX or X (extreme posterior is X)

22

What neural cells arise from the neuroectoderm?
Neural crest?
Mesoderm?

Neuroectoderm:
CNS neurons
Ependymal cells
Oligodendrocytes
Astrocytes

Neural crest:
PNS neurons
Schwann cells

Mesoderm:
Microglia

23

How can one stain for the cell bodies of neurons?

Stain for Nissl substance (RER). Only present in the cell body.

24

What do Meissner's corpuscles sense?

Dynamic touch
Fine touch
Position sense

Found on hairless (glabrous) skin

25

What do Pacinian corpuscles sense?

Vibration
Pressure

26

What do Merkel's discs sense?

Pressure
Deep static touch

27

What are the layers surrounding a PNS nerve?

Epineurium surrounds whole nerve
Perineurium surrounds fascicle of nerve fibers
Endoneurium surrounds individual fibers

28

Where is NE synthesized?

Locus ceruleus
(pons)

29

Where is dopamine produced in the brain?

Ventral tegmentum (VTA)
Substantia nigra (pars compacta)