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Flashcards in Neurophysiology - Special topics Deck (118)
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Nerve cell type that are permanent cells?

Neurons

1

Nerve cell type that are non-permanent cells?

Neuroglia/glial cells/supporting cells

2

Cell type that produces CSF

Ependymal cells

3

Macrophage of the brain

Microglia

4

Regulates ECF ion levels, gives mechanical support forms BBB

Astrocyte (nurse cells)

5

Creates myelin in the CSF

Oligodendrocytes

6

Creates myelin in the PNS

Schwann cells

7

Receiving portion of the neuron

Dendrites and cell body

8

Where action potential of the neuron starts

Axon hillock

9

Unmyelinated portion of the axon

Nodes of Ranvier

10

Branches of the axons

Neural fibril

11

Terminal portion of neural fibril that contains NT-containing vesicles

Axon terminal/Boutons/end-feet

12

Space between two neurons

Synapse

13

Causes saltatory nerve conduction

Nodes of Ranvier

14

Death of axon distal to the site of injury after an axon is transected

Wallerian degeneration/ anterograde/orthograde degeneration

15

Changes in the soma after axon is transected

Axonal reaction/chromatolysis

16

Used by the neuron to communicate with another neuron across a synapse

Neurotransmitter

17

Acetylcholine is secreted from?

Basal ganglia, Nucleus Basalis of Meynert

18

ACh deficiency results to what?

Alzhiemer's disease - mc cause of elderly dementia

19

Dopamine is found mainly in?

Substantia Nigra Pars Compacta and ventral Tegmental Area

20

Dopamine is degraded by what enzyme?

MAO (in presynaptic terminals and COMT (in tissues including liver)

21

Dopamine deficiency?

Parkinson's disease

22

Dopamine excess

Schizophrenia

23

Classic problem in Parkinson's disease

Akinesia

24

Secretes norepinephrine and epinephrine

Locus ceruleus in the pons
B2 is more on epinephrine

25

Tryptophan derivatives

Melatonin, serotonin and niacin

26

Serotonin is mainly secreted by

Median raphe of the brain

27

Inhibitor of pain pathwAys in spinal cord, "happy hormone", low levels seen in depression

Serotonin

28

Serotonin is converted to ____ in the pineal gland

Melatonin

29

Secreted in the brain areas responsible for long - term behavior and memory

Nitric oxide - short acting inhibitory neurotransmitter

30

Neurotransmitter not preformed and stored in vesicles, synthesized almost instantly as needed

Nitric oxide

31

Histamine is secreted from?

Tuberomammillary nucleus of the hypothalamus

32

Neurotransmitter involved in control of arousal, sleep and circadian rhythm

Histamine

33

Two inhibitory neurotransmitter

Glycine - in spinal interneurons (spinal cord)
GABA - number one inhibitory in the brain

34

Comes from Glutamate: causes increase chloride influx or potassium efflux in the brain

GABA

35

Increases chloride influx in the spinal interneurons (spinal cord)

Glycine

36

Number one excitatory neurotransmitter of the brain

Glutamate

37

Exhibited by almost all cells, its the potential difference that exist across the membrane

Resting membrane potential (RMP) - intracellular charge

38

RMP is -70mV caused by?

1. Nernst potential for Na and K diffusion
2. Na-K leak channels or K leak channel
3. Na-K ATPase (-4mV)

39

Basis for resting membrane potential and action potential

Ion channels

40

Making the membrane potential less negative

Depolarization

41

Making the MP more negative

Hyperpolarization

42

Positive charges flowing into the cell

Inward current

43

Positive charges flowing out of the cell

Outward current

44

Membrane potential in which AP is inevitable

Threshold

45

Portion of AP where MP is positive

Overshoot

46

Portion of the AP where MP is

Undershoot (hyperpolarizing after potential)

47

Undershoot results from _____

Prolonged opening of K+ channels

48

Refers to opening of the Na-activation gates causes sodium influx

Depolarization

49

Refers to closure of Na-inactivation gates (stops sodium influx) and opening of potassium gates (causes potassium efflux)

Repolarization

50

Tetradotoxin and Saxitoxin are examples of _____

Sodium channel blockers of neurons

51

An example of potassium channel blocker of neurons

Tetraethylammonium

52

Time periods in an action potential during which a new stimulus cannot be readily elicited

Refractory period

53

another action potential cannot be elicited, no matter how large the stimulus is. Coincides with almost the entire duration of the action Potential

Absolute refractory period

54

Action potential can be elicited only if a larger than usual inward current is provided

Relative refractory period

55

Slow depolarization that the threshold potential is passed without firing an action potential

Accommodation

56

Synaptic inputs that depolarize the post synaptic cell

Excitatory post-synaptic potential (EPSP)

57

Synaptic inputs that hyperpolarize the post-synaptic cell

Inhibitory post-synaptic potential (IPSP)

58

Two or more presynaptic inputs arrive at postsynaptic cell simultaneously

Spatial summation

59

Two or more presynaptic inputs arrive at postsynaptic cell in rapid succession

Temporal summation

60

Repeated stimulation causes response of postsynaptic cell to be greater than expected

Nerve facilitation

61

Increased released of NT and increased sensitivity to the NT

Long-Term Potentiation

62

Repeated stimulation causes decreased response of postsynaptic cell

Synaptic fatigue

63

All sensory nerves pass through the thalamus except for

Olfactory nerve

64

Vasomotor center, respiratory center, swallowing, coughing and vomiting centers

Medulla

65

Micturition center, pneumotaxic, apneustic centers

Pons

66

Relay center for almost all sensation

Thalamus

67

Contributes to balance

Cerebellum

68

Connects the two brain hemispheres

Corpus callosum

69

Motor, personality and calculation

Frontal lobe

70

Somatosensory cortex

Parietal lobe

71

Vision center

Occipital lobe

72

Hearing, vestibular processing and face recognition

Temporal lobe

73

Lesion to Broca's area results to broken speech or ____ aphasia

Expressive aphasia

74

Types of memory

1. Short term memory - chemical changes
2. Intermediate memory - days to weeks
3. Long term memory - physical changes

75

Refers to conversion of short memory to long memory

Consolidation - accelerated and potentiated by rehearsal and learning by trauma

76

Hippocampal lesions will result to what type of amnesia?

Anterograde amnesia - loss of short term memory

77

Thalamic lesion will cause what type of amnesia?

Retrograde amnesia - loss of pre-existing memories to conscious recollection

78

Limbic system: produces mainly oxytocin

Paraventricular nuclei

79

Limbic system: produces mainly vasopressin

Supra optic nuclei

80

Limbic system: satiety center

Ventromedial nuclei

81

Limbic system: hunger center

Lateral nuclei

82

Limbic system: sweating - heat release

Anterior hypothalamus

83

Limbic system: shivering - heat conservation

Posterior hypothalamus

84

Limbic system: punishment center

Central gray area around Aqueduct of Sylvius

85

Limbic system: reward center

Medial forebrain bundle

86

Limbic system: social inhibition

Amygdala

87

Bilateral destruction of the amygdala results to a condition presenting with Hyperorality, Hyperphagia and Hypersexuality

Kluver-Buche syndrome

88

Master clock, modify the biological clock in the human body. Destruction causes loss of circadian functions

Suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN)

89

EEG: wave during deep sleep

Delta

90

EEG: wave during awake, eyes closed

Alpha

91

EEG:wave when awake, eyes open

Beta

92

Secretion of this peptide could be the possible cause of sleep

Muramyl peptide

93

Two types of sleep

Slow wave sleep
Paradoxical sleep

94

Sleep type associated with memory stimulation

Slow - wave sleep

95

Most metabolic organ of the body

Brain - 15% of total metabolism

96

Main source of brain metabolism

Glucose and ketones only

97

Most efficient extractor of oxygen in the body

Heart - 97%

98

Amount of CSF produced per day

500ml - 150ml total amount of CSF in the brain

99

CSF pathway: connects the lateral to third ventricle

Foramen of Monroe

100

CSF pathway: fourth ventricle to subarachnoid space passing through the ______

Foramen of Magendie and Foramen of Luschka

101

CSF pathway: connects the third and fourth ventricle

Aqueduct of Sylvius

102

Sympathetic or parasympathetic: serous salivation

Parasympathetic

103

Sympathetic or parasympathetic: Mucoid salivation

Sympathetic

104

Sympathetic or parasympathetic: glandular secretion

Parasympathetic

105

Most potent heat generating mechanism

Shivering

106

Most of the body heat is loss through which way?

Radiation>evaporation> conduction to air> conduction to objects

107

High temp secondary to use of succinylcholine and halothane

Malignant hyperthermia - treated with PGE2

108

Energy system: in 100m dash, jumping, diving

Phosphagen energy system

109

Energy system: tennis and soccer

Glycogen - lactic acid system : anaerobic, reconstitute ATP and phosphocreatinine

110

Energy system: for unlimited time as long as with energy supply, long distance jogging

Aerobic system

111

Basis of muscle endurance

Glycogen in the body

112

What organ is the limiting factor for maximal exercise

Heart and not the lungs

113

At level of ____altitude, person may experience twitching / seizures

18,000 feet

114

Condition that manifest with acute pulmonary edema, acute cerebral edema

Acute mountain sickness

115

Manifest as pulmonary vasoconstriction, right sided heart failure

Chronic mountain sickness

116

More dangerous G force, blood shunted to the lower extremities

Positive G - at +20G vertebral fracture

117

Manifest as pain in the joints and muscles and dyspnea

Decompression sickness