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Flashcards in NMB Monitoring Deck (62):
1

How can the skeletal muscle be made to relax?

Interfering with transmission along the nerve trunk blocks signals from reaching the terminal bouton (local anesthetics)

Presynaptic - Interfering with Ach production, storage or release  (hemicholinium, botulinus toxin, pentamethonium, NMBAs)

Synaptic Cleft – Inactivate neurotransmitter

Postsynaptic – Interfere with depolarization or activation of the end-plate (NMBAs)

2

What techniques do we use to record/monitor muscle function?

Observation (qualitative), visual, tactile
Mechanomyography (MMG, force displacement)
Electromyography (EMG)
Acceleromyography (AMG)
Kinemyography (KMG) 

3

How many alpha subunits are located on an adult nicotinic receptor to convert the channel to an open state?

2

4

The fetal nicotinic receptors, following major stress, is characterized by a single subunit substitution.  These receptors are characterized by a 10-fold increase in ionic activity, rapid metabolic turnover, and extrajunctional proliferation, thus what must be be cautious of doing?

giving Sux to these pts due to hyperkalemia

5

Pulse duration must be less than ____ msec so as not to induce repetitive neural firing or direct muscle stimulation.

0.5 

6

What is supramaximal current?

10-20% above the current needed to stimulate all nerve fibers in the bundle

Note: This is readily achieved with needle electrodes less than 10mA.

7

Stimulation of all nerve fibers within a bundle is easily done with ____ electrodes, but ______ electrodes may fail to stimulate all fibers when they are not in close proximity to the nerve or when the pts are obese.

needle

surface

8

Needle electrodes require lower stimulation because they bypass impedance of the skin.  

What is the low output level of needle stimulators?

What is the risk associated with high current density?

0-40mA

Hazard for electrical burns

9

Why is the distance b/n electrodes important?

Determines the penetration of depth of the stimulation current

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10

How far should the electrodes be apart from one another?

1 inch

One source says 3-6 cm, other says 2.5-4cm.

11

What method of monitoring uses a force transducer similar to a BP transducer used to measure the force produced or the distance moved?

mechanical transduction (MMG)

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12

What method uses electrodes, monitor the electrical activity induced in muscle by contraction – similar to ECG?

Electromyography (EMG) 

13

What method of monitoring muscle function measures the acceleration of the muscle body or the attachment of the muscle?

Acceleromyography (AMG) 

14

What method of monitoring muscle function uses motion  that is converted to electricity?

Kinemyography (KMG) 

15

What method does this depict?

Q image thumb

Mechanical MG (MMG)

16

What method does this depict?

What is encircled?

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EMG

detection electrode

17

What muscles are stimulated with ulnar nerve stimulation?

adductor pollicis

flexor pollicis brevis

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18

Label

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19

What type of neuromuscular blockade produces this response?

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Non-depolarizing or Phase II block

20

What type of neuromuscular blockade produces this response?

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depolarizing

21

What anatomical positions are suitable for monitoring?

Ulnar Nerve innervating Adductor pollicis and Flexor Pollicis Brevis

Facial Nerve innervating Frontalis and Orbicularis Oculi

Posterior Tibial innervating Flexor Hallucis Brevis
  

22

What 2 things should you not do during anode/cathode placement?

Do not place anode (red) between the cathode (black) and the muscle bed being observed.

Do not place the electrodes directly over muscle 

23

Anodal current threshold is approx. ____% more than cathodal.

25

24

What movement is expected with ulnar nerve stimulation?

thumb adduction, 5th digit movement

25

What movement is expected with posterior tibial nerve stimulation?

Plantar flexion of the big toe

26

What movement is expected with peroneal nerve stimulation?

Foot dorsiflexion

27

What movement is expected with facial nerve stimulation?

orbicularis oculi contraction

 

28

What movement is expected with mandibular nerve (V3) stimulation?

jaw closure

29

A maximal dose of rocuronium has a faster onset time than a submaximal dose.  

However, what can we say about the maximal effect with respect to time with a maximal and submax dose?

Both maximal and submaximal doses have a maximal effect at 4 minutes.

 

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30

Onset for neuromuscular blockade is faster for _____ potent drugs.  Name the 2 common ones.  

less

Sux, Roc

Note: More potent Vec and Cis take longer.

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31

When the adductor pollicis is maximumally blocked 98% +/- 1, how much are the laryngeal adductors blocked?

77% +/-5

32

Label the recovery from NMB curves:

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33

Should nerve stimulation be monophasic or biphasic?

monophasic

34

The evoked tension of the muscle varies with the stimulating current and forms a ________ curve.

sigmoidal

Note: As current increases, the number of nerves reaching threshold increases until all are responding.  After all nerves have reached threshold, further increases in current fail to increase motor response.

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35

What initial threshold in mA is needed for stimulation?

What is the mA needed for supramaximal stimulus?

15 mA

32 mA

36

Stimulation at 10mA will produce same fade response at 60mA.  True or false?

True

Takeaway: We want to use the min. current to assess required stimulation.

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37

If you have a depolarizing block and initiate a post-tetanic stimulation, what response do you expect?

None

38

If you have a non-depolarizing block, and initiate a post-tetanic stimulus, what response do you expect?

A stronger response than initial response

39

What type of response is depicted?

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Post-tetanic non-depolarizing block

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40

What type of response is depicted?

Post-tetanic depolarizing block

Note: The amplitude does not change after post-tetanic stimulus.

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41

What should the current output for a nerve stimulator be adjustable to?

from 10 - 80 mA

42

As pulse duration becomes greater than ____ msec, muscle stimulation becomes more likely.

0.2 msec

43

What % receptors are blocked for 4 TOFc, sustained tetany at 50Hz?

 

70%

44

What % of receptors are blocked for 4 TOFc, onset of fade at 100Hz?

50%

Note: Measuring at 100Hz rather than 50Hz provides a 20% margin of safety when determining extent of NMB.  

45

There is no discernible decrease in the amplitude of the evoked neuromuscular response until at least _____% of receptors are blocked.

70

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46

How many post-tetanic twitches = 1 TOFc?

10

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47

When reversing the pt with no twitches, what chance of reversal do we have with a post-tetanic count of:

0
5-10
>10 count

0: little chance of reversal
5 – 10 count: possible reversal
>10 count: reversal very likely

The higher the count the more likely the reversal.

 

48

If the TOF ratio = 0.7 - 0.75, what would be the correlating signs and symptoms?

  • Diplopia
  • Decreased grip strength
  • Inability to maintain apposition of the incisor teeth
  • Tongue depressor test negative
  • Inability to sit up without help
  • Severe facial weakness
  • Speaking is difficult
  • Overall weakness/tiredness

49

What are unreliable tests for post-op neuromuscular recovery? (6)

  • Sustained eye opening
  • Protrusion of the tongue
  • Arm lift to the opposite shoulder
  • Normal tidal volume
  • Normal or early normal vital capacity
  • Max. inspiratory pressure less than 40-50 cmH2O

 

50

What are the most reliable test of post-op neuromuscular recovery? (4)

  • Sustained head lift for 5 sec
  • Sustained leg lift for 5 sec
  • Sustained handgrip " "
  • Max inspiratory pressure 40-50 cm H2O or greater

51

If a pt is able to sustain a 5 sec head lift, what is the approximate TOF ratio?

0.6-0.7

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52

What are conditions associated with upregulation of ACh receptors? (7)

  • Spinal cord injury
  • Stroke
  • Burns
  • Prolonged immobility
  • Prolonged exposure to NMB
  • MS
  • Guillain-Barre syndrome

53

What kind of response do you expect for those that have upregulated ACh receptors to nondepolarizing relaxants?

resistance to nondepolarizers

sensitivity to depolarizers

54

What situations are associated with downregulation of ACh receptors?

myasthenia gravis

organophosphate poisoning

anticholinesterase poisoning

55

What type of response do you expect with those that have downregulated ACh receptors?

very sensitive to NMDB

Blocking agents should be avoided.

Note: Chronic elevations of ACh observed with organophosphorus poisoning or chronic use of reversible cholinesterase inhibitors results in down-regulation of AChRs.

56

What drugs potentiate the action of non-depolarizers?

Antibiotics (aminoglycosides) like gentamicin, tobramycin, amikacin

Lidocaine or other locals

Ca channel blockers

Beta blockers

Diuretics

 

57

What inhalational agents produce the most--> least motor blockade?

Least soluble produce greatest blockade

Des>sevo>iso>halo > TIVA 

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58

Hyper/hypo-thermia significantly prolongs the onset and duration of NMB.

hypothermia

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59

Stimulation electrodes should not take up a contact area greater than ___-____ mm.

7-11 mm

60

The fading common after non-depolarizing relaxants is not observed when:

the direct stimulation of the muscle is occurring

additionally weak contractions continue even during deep motor blockade

61

Reversal of NMB causes what 6 things?

BLUDS (BBLUDS)
Bradycardia
Bronchospasm
Lacrimation
Urination
Defecation
Salivation

62

What is a neostigmine block?

Too much ACh results in the motor end plate to remain depolarized thus increasing block.

Thus reduce the dose of agent if recovery is almost complete.