What is the definition of aphasia? Is it an impairment of cognition?
•An acquired deficit in language abilities resulting from damage to the brain.
•Is not an impairment of cognition, though they can co-occur with aphasia.
What are common causes of aphasia?
•What can cause aphasia?
What are the four language domains?
- Auditory comprehension
- Verbal expression
- Reading comprehension
- Written expression
HOw do we differentiate between aphasias?
•Fluent expression? Y N
•Intact auditory comprehension? Y N
•Intact Repetition ability? Y N
Describe the aphasia chart
Describe Broca's aphasia. Where is the site of lesion? What is the blood supply?
•Site of Lesion: Damage to Broca’s area (inferior, posterior frontal lobe)
•Blood supply: Anterior branch of the Left Middle Cerebral Artery (MCA)
What are the features of Broca's aphasia? How is auditory comprehension? How is verbal expression? How is repetition? What are some other features? What does wrttien language mirror? What may it co-occur with?
- Generally intact
•Written Language typically mirrors expressive skills
•May co-occur with motor speech deficits (apraxia and/or dysarthria)
•Usually co-occurs with hemiparesis of the dominant (right) hand
Describe non-fluent expression. What kinds of words do they say? What would cookie theft picture sound like?
•Words come slowly. Frequent hesitations. Halting production.
•Often frequent fillers (uh, um)
•Limited word types. Often more nouns than other types of words.
In describing the cookie theft picture:
“uh…mother and dad… no…mother…dishes…uh…runnin over… water… and floor… and they… uh… wiping disses… and …uh… two kids… uh… stool… and cookie… cookie jar…uh…cabinet and stool…uh… tipping over…. and… uh… bad… and somebody… gonna get hurt.”
Describe anomia. What is it a difficulty with? What phenomena does it include?
Difficulty retrieving words. Sometimes called “word finding”
May be able to:
- Describe it
- Use it
- Draw it
- Think of the first letter
- Write the word
- Even rhyme the word,
- … but still not retrieve the word!
Describe paraphasias. What is it an error in? What level language skills does it involve? What kind of problem is it NOT? What are some types of paraphasias?
•An error in word retrieval
•Related to high-level language skills
•NOT a pronunciation or motor planning problem
•Types of Paraphasias:
- (Neologism: Not typically associated with Broca’s)
Describe phonemic paraphasias
Phonemic Paraphasias (AKA Literal Paraphasias)
- incorrect sounds are substituted for target sounds.
- Word still contains enough information to be recognizable to a native speaker
- Sounds within the word may be transposed
Describe semantic paraphasias. What are the different types?
Semantic Paraphasia (AKA Verbal Paraphasia)
•Related: Real word substituted for a related word
•Unrelated: Real word substituted for an unrelated word
"Window" for door
"Show" for door
Describe perseverative paraphasia
•A word or sound that is repeated inappropriately
•Can be phomenic or semantic in nature
What type of paraphasia is not associated with Broca's aphasia?
What is a stereotypy?
•May be considered a form of perseveration
•Typical of more severe aphasias
•A word or phrase that is used repeatedly and inappropriately over an extended period of time
•Some patients can use intonation to communicate different intents
What is agrammatism?
Literally: Absence of grammar
•Output is described as “Telegraphic”
- Omission of Function words
- Preservation of Content words
Describe transcortical motor aphasia. What is the site of lesion? What is the blood supply? What are the features?
•Site of Lesion: Either the
- Premotor cortex or
- Anterior to Broca’s area
•Blood Supply: Either
- Anterior Cerebral Artery or
- Middle Cerebral Artery
- Similar to Broca’s Aphasia
- **Preserved repetition**
- Intact comprehension
Describe global aphasia