Flashcards in Nutrition I Deck (15):
How are the daily recommended values calculated?
The value for an "average" person is measured, and two standard deviations above is recommended
What is the energy in kcal/g provided by fat, carbs, protein and alcohol? Are these all essential macronutrients?
carbs- 4 kcal/g
protein- 4 kcal/g
fat- 9 kcal/g
Carbs, protein and fat are essential macronutrients. Alcohol is not.
How is our energy expended daily? (% on BMR, physical activity etc)
Basal metabolic rate: 60-70%
Physical Activity: 20-30%
Although physical activity is obviously widely variable
True/False; overweight individuals have relatively low basal metabolic rates?
False, when you correct for the BMR/metabolically active tissue (eliminate fat from weight)
What are 4 conditions in which people experienced depressed basal metabolic rate?
Very low calorie diets/starvation state
What are 4 conditions in which people experience increased basal metabolic rates?
Any type of hypermetabolic state (burns, injuries, sepsis)
How does diet affect metabolism?
It does not.
Exception: caffeine and ephedrine temporarily increase metabolism
What is the only way to increase your metabolism?
Increase your muscle mass (increase amount of metabolically active tissue)
What did the Minnesota Study teach us about diet and metabolism? What does this mean for weight loss?
Starvation states depress our basal metabolic rate, presumably in an attempt to preserve the protein we have left.
After resuming a normal diet, patient's metabolism returned to normal very quickly.
This means that weight loss will slow down as you eat a calorie-restricted diet for a long period of time, because your metabolism will slow down (in an effort to prevent weight loss).
What is stunting?
Linear growth deficiency (read: short) due to chronic protein energy malnutrition.
How is "underweight" defined?
less than 18.5 BMI
Marasmus - or wasting- is defined as a weight for height greater than 2 standard deviations below normal
What is Kwashiorkor?
Kwashiorkor is linked to low calorie intake and results in a constellation of symptoms including: central and lower limb edema, fatty liver, pigment changes in hair/skin to reddish color- banding in hair appears if the deficiency is seasonal
Does early stunting of growth mean due to malnutrition mean you will always be doomed the life of a short person?
Before the age of 5, you have a potential for catch- up growth