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Flashcards in Nutrition II Deck (68):
1

What are the three dietary lipids? Which is the primary form of dietary lipids?

TAG, cholesterol and phytosterols

Triacylglycerols (>95%)

2

Palmitic acid and stearic acid are examples of what type of fatty acid?

Saturated

3

Are saturated fatty acids solids or liquids at room temperature?

Solid

4

What negative consequence is associated with saturated fatty acids?

Hypercholesterolemia

5

What are some foods that are high in saturated fatty acids?

animal and dairy fats, palm and coconut oil

6

Oleic acid is an example of what type of fatty acid?

Mono-unsaturated ( at least 12 carbons long, one double bond at C9)

7

What negative health consequences are associated with mono-unsaturated fats?

None: mono-unsaturated fats are not associated with hypercholesterolemia or decreased HDL

8

What are the two essential fatty acids? What type of fatty are they?

linoleic and alpha-linolenic acid

They are polyunsaturated fatty acids

9

What is the consistency of polyunsaturated fats at room temperature?

Liquid

10

How do polyunsaturated fats affect LDL and HDL?

They can lower both LDL and HDL (so bad/good affects)

11

What is essential fatty acid deficiency?

Deficiency in essential fatty acids (linoleic and alpha-linoleic acid)

Appears as scaly dermatitis

12

Name three omega-3 fatty acids

alpha-linoleic acid, EPA and DHA

13

Is it true that omega-3 fatty acids lowers your risk for CVD?

Yes- but only for people already at high risk

14

What are trans fats? How do they affect LDL and HDL?

hydrogenation turns liquid oils into solid fats (so unsaturated fats into solids)

They are associated with increased levels of LDL, Coronary heart disease and atherosclerosis, to the same degree or more than saturated fats

15

What are some common dietary sources of soluble fiber?

legumes, oats, some fruit, some vegetables, and nuts

16

How does soluble fiber affect cholesterol?

Soluble fibers is implicated in cholesterol lowering.

17

What are sources of insoluble fiber>

Potato skin, whole grains, wheat bran, some vegetables

18

What is the benefit of insoluble fiber?

Helps regulate bowel movements.

19

Which are the fat soluble vitamins?

A,D,E,K

20

What is another name for vitamin A?

Retinol

21

What is another name for vitamin D?

Cholecalciferol

22

What is another name for vitamin E?

Tocopherol

23

What is another name for vitamin K?

phylloquinone

24

Which are the water-soluble vitamins?

All the B vitamins + Vitamin C

25

What is another name for vitamin B1?

Thiamin

26

What is another name for vitamin B2?

Riboflavin

27

What is another name for vitamin B3?

Niacin

28

What is another name for vitamin B5?

Pantothenic acid

29

What is another name for vitamin B7?

Biotin

30

What is another name for vitamin B9?

Folic acid

31

What is another name for vitamin C?

Ascorbic Acid

32

What are the primary functions of water-soluble vitamins?

Coenzymes

33

What is beta-carotene?

Beta-carotene, found in many colored vegetables (like carrots) is a precursor for retinol (vitamin A)

34

What are the two metabolically active forms of vitamin A?

Retinol and Retinoic acid

35

What form of vitamin A is used as a prosthetic group for visual pigments? Which is used as a nuclear modulator of gene expression?

Prosthetic group of visual pigments: retinol
Nuclear modulator of gene expression: retinoic acid

36

Why is vitamin A critical for fetal growth?

Vitamin A, as retinoic acid, is critical for the differentiation and development of limbs during development

37

Where are carotenoids stored?

They can be stored anywhere, but mostly in the dermis. This is why you turn orange if you eat an absurd number of carrots.

38

What is an early sign of vitamin A deficiency?

Night blindness

39

What is the cardinal sign of a vitamin A deficiency?

Xerophthalmia- abnormal dryness of cornea and conjunctiva.

40

What are the symptoms of acute vitamin A toxicity?

nausea, vomiting, headache, peeling of skin

41

What is the cardinal sign of vitamin A toxicity?

bright red gingiva

42

What is the main function of vitamin D?

Maintain serum Ca2+ concentrations

(Increase intestinal absorption, increase bone resorption, increase renal reabsorption)

43

How does Vitamin D have an effect?

Vitamin D in its active form binds the Vitamin D receptor (a transcription factor) and regulates gene expression

44

What are the childhood and adult pathologies associated with vitamin D deficiency?

Childhood: Rickets- failure of appropriate mineral deposition in the epiphyseal cartilage
Adult: Osteomalacia- stimulated mobilization of calcium and phosphorus from bone to maintain serum concentrations

45

What populations are at risk for vitamin D deficiencies?

Dark colored skin- they absorb less UV light
People who don't get any sun exposure (particularly breastfed infants)

46

What is the primary function of vitamin E?

Scavenger of free radicals and peroxyl radicals

47

What is the primary function of vitamin K?

Regulation of blood clotting protein synthesis
It functions as a coenzyme in carboxylation reactions

(Carboxylation enzyme deficiencies -- think vitamin K)

48

What is the primary manifestation of vitamin K deficiencies?

Uncontrolled bleeding

49

Who is at highest risk for a vitamin K deficiency, and what is the result?

Newborns are often born with a vitamin K deficiency, and as a result, experience hemorrhaging.

Prophylactic vitamin K is given as a shot to newborns in nearly all developed countries

50

Thiamin/vitamin B1 is a coenzyme for which important metabolic enzyme?

Pyruvate dehydrogenase

The coenzyme is in the form of thiamin diphosphate (TPP)

51

All of the Beriberi syndromes are associated with a deficiency in what?

Vitamin B1- thiamin

52

What are the symptoms of dry beriberi?

Peripheral neuropathies, impairment of sensory motor and reflex functions

53

What are the symptoms of wet berberi?

Dry beriberi symptoms + cardiomegaly, congestive heart failure, edema

54

What are the symptoms of cerebral beriberi?

Wernicke's encephalopathy. Mental confusion, bilateral 6th nerve paralysis

55

Why must you administer thiamin before giving glucose to a chronic alcoholic?

Because they may have a thiamin deficiency, in which case PDH function will be impaired and glycolysis will be inhibited. THis would lead to hyperglycemia

56

What is the first vitamin that should come to mind when you are dealing with chronic alcoholism?

Thiamin (B1)

57

Riboflavin, B2, has a third name- what is it?

FAD

58

Niacin (nicotinic acid, NAD and NADP) can be synthesized from which amino acid?

Tryptophan

59

Large doses of niacin can be used as a first pass drug for which chronic condition?

Hyperlipidemia

60

What are the 4 D's of niacin deficiency?

Dermatitis, diarrhea, dementia and death

61

What three important enzymes require vitamin C as a cofactor?

Prolyl 4-hydroxylase, prolyl 3-hydroxylase and lysyl hydroxylase

These enzymes are all involved in collagen hydroxylation

62

What are the cardinal symptoms of scurvy?

Collagen formation deficiency leads to bleeding from gums and other mucus membranes, formation of spots on the skin

63

Folate is an important cofactor for reactions in what pathway?

Purine and pyrimidine biosynthesis

64

What two enzymes in particular are blocked by a folate deficiency?

Thymidylate synthase --> defective DNA synthesis
Methionine Synthase (aka homocysteine methyltransferase)

65

What is another name for vitamin B12?

Cobalamin

66

What substance in the urine is indicative of a vitamin B12 deficiency?

MMA- methylmalonic acid

67

Hyperhomocysteinemia is commonly seen with deficiencies of what two vitamins?

Folate (B9) and Cobalamin (B12)

68

Pernicious anemia is caused by malabsorption of what vitamin?

B12