Flashcards in Nutritional Disorders & Wellness Diets Deck (42)
What is Pruritis?
Itchy the skin cause it's itchy
What are symptoms of food sensitivities?
Pruritus, self-inflicted alopecia (ie neurodermatitis) eosinophilic plaques, indolent ulcers of the lip in some cats
DT: vomiting, small bowel diarrhea, large bowel diarrhea
Clinical signs: 4-24 hours after eating consumption of food with offending antigen (what they are allergic to)
Food allergens are GENERALLY large proteins
Beef, dairy, fish, gluten intolerance, lactose intolerance
How do you diagnose food sensitivity?
1. Feed an elimination diet and demonstrate a decrease of elimination of clinical signs
2. Challenge the animal with the original diet and observe returning signs
3.Feed select ingredients to see which dietary component the animal is allergic to
4. Select a diet containing novel proteins and carb sources - feed elimination diet for 8-10 weeks and notice elimination of symptoms. Cat: Lamb and barley, Dog: duck and potatoe Horse: timothy
5.If the elimination diet reduces clinical symptoms, slowly introduce the original diet - if symptoms reoccur, then there is a definitive diagnosis of food sensitivity
How can food allergens be identified?
Add a SMALL amount of suspected allergen to the elimination diet - observe the return of clinical signs
How do you lifelong manage food hypersensitivities?
Feed diet that is exclusive of the food allergens the animal reacts to, and is complete and balanced and feed this diet exclusively without extra human foods unless they are known to be free of the food the dog is allergic to.
What are some NON allergen diet considerations?
1. Add reduced amounts of a novel, highly digestible protein source. Or a protein hydrosylate (with smaller pieces of protein in di/tri peptides (because free amino acids and peptides make poor antigens) - ALSO want 1 animal protein and 1 plant protein)
2. Avoid protein excess (don't overfeed protein if have protein allergy :)
3. Avoid additives / vasoactive amines (ie tryptophan etc protein derivatives)
4. Feed a balanced nutritionally active diet for animals life stage / condition
What is suggested for home made elimination foods?
1. Choose 1 carb and one protein source
2. Cat: Lamb, baby food, lamb rice and rabbit
Canine: duck, potatoe, lamb fish, rabbit, venison and tofu
What is the most common form of malnutrition in companion animals?
20-44% cats obese
25-44% dogs obese
25-45% horses obese
What were some changes to domestication for horse, dog and cat? (ie what did they use to do before they got so lazy)
Cat: Mouser in the barn
Dog: working partner
Horse: grazing in fields (free range grazing)
Wat is the definition of overweight
Animals 1-9% over optimal = above optimal
10-19% - overweight
>20% - obese
What are some risk factors for obesity?
1. Breed - high incidence in labs, golden retrievers, sheltandsheepdogs, labs, cocker spaniels
2. Gender / gonadectomy
Females more at risk (less lean body tissue vs males)
Neutering k9 / cat - BMR decreases 20-25% - due to increased energy efficiency, increased appetite and decreased voluntary activity
3. Age - middle aged cats most at risk (kittens/young cats have an increased activity levels)
decreased energy requirement
4. Activity level
Daily energy expenditure
Playful vs outdoor cat vs sedentary
Work vs sedentary dog
Pasture horse vs exercising horse
Temperment of each individual animal
5. Type of diet
=caloric consumption of foods they are being fed
Highly palatable diet
- can lead to overconsumption of calorically dense food that is rich in fat
Also free choice feeding of sedentary animals leads to higher BCS
THE OWNER IS IN CONTROL!!!
How do you figure out how much to feed to lose weight?
calculate the energy required for the DESIRED weight and feed at this requirement
Why should obese cats be fed a commercial diet formulated for weight loss?
Because restricting normal maintenance diets may result in nutritional deficiencies
How do commercial diets provide fewer calories
Decrease fat content (but still provide fat to be pallatible)
SLIGHTLY Increase complex carbs to makeup for energy lost in fat decrease
Increase in digestible fiber
-increases bulkiness but decreases digestibility of the diet
May not decrease energy consumption (voluntary)
Why are indigestible fibers good to add to the diet? And why dont we just add a TON?
Because indigestible fiber adds bulkiness to the diet while decreasing overall digestibility. Causes cascade of incretin signalling of satiety when microbes ferment and produce SCFA. Also poor pallatability
Why do WL diets have more complex carbs added
Complex carbs are lower in energy and highly digestible. Also no increase in defecation as with highly fermnetable diets (fiber diets)
Why do high fiber diets work for WL? What are some negative consequences of this?
They create bulk to decrease appetite
Adverse side effects:
Poor coat / skin quality
Decrease nutrient availability
Poor palatability / acceptance
Name three weight loss management techniques for horses
1. decrease amount of high calorie diet fed
2. Fed more lower calorie feed - containing lower energy concentration
3.Increase energy expenditure through exercise
Name one health risk of obesity
insulin resistance, hyperthyroidism, glucose intolerance, diabetes, joint distress, cardiovascular disease, abnormal reproductive performance, laminitis
What is diabetes mellitus
Endocrine disorder caused by the altered glucose metabolism usually as a result of either absolute or relative deficiency of insulin.
What is type 1 Diabetes
Abrupt onset - lack of endogenous insulin production by the pancrease
destructin of the pancreatic islet beta cells by the body's immune system
require exogenous injection of insulin lifelong for survival
What is type 2 diabetes
Impaired insulin secretion due to cellular resistance to circulating insulin
Increased concententration of circulating insulin is needed to maintain adequate bg levels
Over time, resistance worsens - causing hyperglycemia to persitst.
Deposition of amyloid in islet cells in pancrease
Pancreatic peptide amylin is co pre cipitated with insulin normally
What are some symptoms of diabetes
Related to long or short term hyperglycemia
Excess drinking (polydipsia)
Excess peeing (polyurea)
Can lead to long term diseases: Renal disease, cataracts, neurological disorders - IF NOT TREATED properly
What are risk factors for diabetes?
age, obesity, inactivity
breed - siamese / burmese kittys
neutered males more at risk than intact females / males
Which type of diabetes is most common in the cat
Why are 70% of cats treated with exogenous insulin therapy if the majority of them have type 2 diabetes?
Because amyloid deposition in islet cells causes impairment of insulin production leading to insufficient insulin secretion
Therefore there is a need for exogenous insulin
What are some ways to dietary manage cats with diabetes?
1. Weight loss and control
2. Ensure feeding premium cat food with high quality ingredients and balanced stable profile of nutrients and consistent distribution of carbs / protein / fats - ensure there are less post prandial fluxes of glucose in the blood
3. Complex carbs such as Grain, sorghum and corn better than starchy rich
4.Little bit more protein / fat / fiber and less starch to have a low glycemic index - therefore not spiking that blood glucose.
5. Minimize post prandial blood glucose fluctuations by strictly regulating feeding times (feed multiple small meals throughout the day)
Risk factors for canine diabetes:
Age, sex (females more at risk vs males), hormonal abnormalities (hypothyroidism), obesity, breeds (schnauzer, mini schnauzer, samoyed, australian terrior, keeshond)
What type of diabetes is most common in K9 - what is the prescribed treatment
Type 1 - exogenous insulin
What is the prevalence of type 2 diabetes in dogs
10-20% in dogs - and sometimes can be reversed upon proper diet management / weight control - resulting in normal insulin responsiveness
What complex carbs should be used to feed diabetic cats or dogs?
Corn, sorghum, grain, barley
How should diet be regulated for diabetic dogs
Feed complex carbs including sorghum corn barley grain
Also should contain fermentable fiber source (such as beet pulp / FOS) to aid with glycemic control and adequate chromium level in order to regulate processing of protein / carbs / lipids and enhance insulin ability.
Fats moderately restricted
Name some ways can manage diet for dog diabetes
Feed high quality food with consistent calorie distribution between fat / protein / carbs
Portion controlled meal feeding
feeding times should be consistent each day in smaller portions
Feeding time should be strictly regulated to coincide with peak insulin action
Meal should always be offered before administering insulin.
Why does diabetes mellitus rarely occur in the horse despite insulin resistance is quite common with obesity?
Pancreatic secretion of insulin rarely fails during the lifespan of the horse
Possibly due to little fat consumption
Most common in older horses / ponies
What does insulin resistance lead to in horses?
Pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (GH dysfunction)
Osteochondrosis (issue with bone development)
Name some ways insulin resistance can be managed with diet
1. Avoid high starch diets that includes concentrates that are highly digestible (like first cut grass - richer in sugars first cut in spring)
2. provide meals at intervals that avoid large glucose responses
3. Forages should be lower quality
4. Some insulin sensitizing drugs are available (stimulating insulin secretion) metformin and glyburide
What is hepatic lipidosis in cats and what are some risk factors?
Triglyceride acculumlation in hepatic cells
High mortality rate
AFFECTS FEMALES more than males
Associated with Diabetes / obesity
REVERSIBLE but requires AGGRESSIVE Txw
What are some clinical signs of hepatic lipidosis
depression, annorexia, jaundice, muscle wasting vomitting / diarrhea
How can hepatic lipidosis in cats be managed with diet?
First, must be diagnosed early with intermediate nutritional therapy
1. Most effective tx - include high protein / energy dense diet
30-50% ME as protein
30-50% ME as fat
20-30% ME as digestible carbs
Annorexia may persist for months, therefore may need to feed tube until can consume normal intake voluntarily for 1 week.
IN THE LONG TERM, must eat diets that prevent obesity and promote weight loss.
what is laminitus
It is the disattachment between the dermal and epidermal laminae junction of the horse foot
What are the different stages of laminitus
Developmental - period between initial insult and lameness
Acute - which can lead to subacute or chronic laminitis
subacute is where there is absence of physical damage in the acute part and there is recovery period (of 72 hours)
Chronic is where there is rotation of the distal phalanx and mechanical collapse of the foot