Flashcards in INGREDIENTS IN PET FOODS Deck (22)
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What are Ingredient Characteristics

1. Nutrient Characteristics (total content known - also human food data base, generally weak public data base)
2. Bioavailability poorly described (don't like to use animal models)
3. Functional Characteristics
4.Feed Processing Characteristics
5.Taste Characteristics (pallatibility)
6. Color characteristics


What Are the Ingredient Categories?

For Nutritional Value:
1. Vitamin / mineral content
2.Chondroprotective agents, antioxidants
3.Probiotics / enzymes
4.Herbs/ botanicals

For Technical / non nutritive effects:
2. Flavours
3. Extracts
4. Colors / others


Name three parts of importance of feed quality

1. Input - affects the intake (pallatability, how much eat etc)
2.Output - feces / stool quality
3. Animal Health (growth, animal health / growth / haircoat obesity, welfare)


What is important in processing Dicalcium phosphate?

Removing the entire CNS so there isn't a chance of BSE contamination (including encephalon and spinal cord)


What are some roles of Calcium and Phosphate

-Blood Clotting
-Maintaining healthy strong teeth and bones
-P utilized in energy system
-Regular heart heartbeat / muscle contractions


What Happens when there is too much Calcium in the diet

Inhibition of other nutrients
Kidney stones


What is Bioavavailability

How much of a nutrient can be used by an animal to support metabolic functions.
side note: bioavailability data sorely lacking for companion animals - therefore use the swine database


Which is more bioavailable Oxides or sulfates?

Sulfates, oxides are poorly bioavailable


What is Phytate?

Complex that binds Phosphorous, other minerals, even starch. Therefore phosphorous digestibility is low in plant products.


Why is salt important in the diet

To support maintenance and normal growth / development. Dogs require at least 0.3% Na in dry kibble and 0.2% in cat dry dog food.


What happens when there's too much sodium in a dog diet?

Increased thirst
Can cause swelling in the body. Puts strain on the kidneys and circulatory system as the body tries to rid excess fluid.
Vomitting / diarrhea / seizures may indicate sodium ion poisoning


Why is DL-Methionine important?

Precursor of cysteine - which can become converted into Taurine.
Can be converted to GLUTATHIONE WHICH is an important physiological antioxidant.
It is also an important urinary acidifier - which prevents UTIs and bladder infections
Important for skin / coat / eye / heart health etc.
Vitally important to the long term health of K9/Feline
Side Effects: Loss of Appetite, vomitting / diarrhea


What is the importance of Taurine / where is it found?

EXCLUSIVELY found in animal based protein, muscle meat
Absent in cereal grains.
ESSENTIAL for cats: conjugation of bile acids
Membrane stabilization
Modulation of calcium signalling
Critical for vision, digestion, heart muscle function, fetal development, healthy immune system


What does Choline Chloride do?

Methyl donor in reactions involving methionine, folic acid, vitamin B12, glycine / Serine
Key component of cell membrane phospholipids
vital part of NT acetylcholine
Lipotropic agent in fat utilization / lipid signalling
Defficiency: results in weight loss, fatty liver and even death in cats / dogs


Name a nutritive supplement and it's function

1. Chrondroprotectants
Glucosamine HCL/ Chondroitin Sulfate
Retards degredation of cartilege (chondroprotective)
Promote chondrocyte metabolism in the treatment of osteoarthritis
Made from hydrolysis of shrimp / crab shells (hydrolysis of chitin)
Also in sulfonated form (chondroitin sulfate)
2.Antioxidants - decrease oxidative damage and free radical formation
Vitamin E (essential, reduce formation of free radicals and protects lipid rich cell membrane)
Vitamin C - non essential
Mineral dependent antioxidants (trace minerals incooperated into antioxidant enzymes) Se, Mg, Zn, Cu
Beta carotene, other carotenoids
Precursor for Vitamin A in K9 NOT FELINE
3. Probiotics - Promote intestinal health
Lactobacillus - Aspergillus etc.
Influence gut flora to compete against salmonella / e.coli etc. (canines and felines more prone to digestive sensitivit may benefit from pre/probiotic.
Rarely used in companion animals (like phytase)
5. Herbs/ botanicals
MAJOR source of flavor
Minor source of macronutrients in whole form
Pharamacological vs nutritional function.
Potential safety concern - onions / garlic in large Q cause oxidative damage.
6. Other:
transports long-chain acyl groups from fatty acids into the mitochondrial matrix, so they can be broken down through β-oxidation to acetyl CoA to obtain usable energy via the citric acid cycle
7.Pre biotic
Fructo oligosaccharide
Anything that isn't digested but fermented
Resistant starch (not digested in SI fermented in LI)
Among these, a wide range or fermentation characteristics exist.



Prevents fatty acid degredation and also prevents degredation of fat soluble vitamins
In fish meal, vitamin premix
Watch upper safe limit 75 ppm


Propylene glycol

Hygroscopic to retain moisture, useful for semi moist food
may cause oxidative damage
Prohibited from use in manufacture of cat foods



Extracted from plants - a preservative "natural" like vitamin e


Natural sources of colors

Spices, fruits, veggies, caramel


Sodium Hexameta phosphate

Sequester minerals to form chelate complexes
Prevent mineralization
of dental plaque to form calculi
Sequestering minerals to form chelate complexes
Prevent mineralization of dental plaque to form calculi


What other additives may be added which may faciliate manufacturing processes and affect stability or form of food?

dust control agents, lubricants, gums, emulsifiers


Melamine What dat

Product contaminated with melamine
LOTS of nitrogen –
NON protein nitrogen – increased nitrogen – feeeding indurstirally – measure nitrogen in crude protein measuremnt
Multiply by coeffecient 6.25 – assuemd crude protein ocntent –
Lift N concentration in diet but caused lots of problems
Proposed used for ruminants not monogastrics