Review of Nutrients Lecture 2B Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Review of Nutrients Lecture 2B Deck (12)
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Name some basic functions nutrients are involved with in the body?

Act as structural components
Enhance (or involved in) chemical reactions of metabolism
Transport substances into, throughout or out of the body
Maintain body temperature
Supply energy


What is an essential nutrient?

Nutrient can not be synthesized by the animal, must be obtained in the food


What is a non essential nutrient?

Nutrient can be synthesized in adequate quantities by animals and are not specifically required in the food


What is a conditionally essential nutrient?

Conditionally essential:
A non-essential nutrient that becomes an essential nutrient when certain physiologic conditions result in relative deficiency


What is the definition of "digestibility"?

Percentage of food’s gross nutrient content released following mechanical and chemical digestive processes
Is influenced by both food characteristics and the digestive efficiency of the host


What is "bioavailability"?

The degree to which a nutrient becomes available to support metabolism after digestion and absorption
Bioavailability – means that not all nutrients digested are in form of sustained growth form. – nutrient digested but not available


What might examples of nutrients that sometimes are digestible but not available?

Lysine - during maillard reaction when binds with sugar on nitrogenous group


What is apparent digestibility?

Apparent digestibility:
Nutrient intake minus nutrient excretion in feces
Apparent – have diet / fecal sample – deduction – measured beyond digestibility is APPARENT – reason is because nutrients collected – some of them aren’t from the diet – are in digesta because secreted by animal into GIT – can make correction for this


What is true digestibility?

True digestibility:
Nutrient intake minus nutrient excretion in feces corrected for intestinal endogenous losses


What are intestinal endogenous losses?

Intestinal endogenous losses:
Excretion of nutrient into gut due to cell turn over, intestinal secretions, sloughing of intestinal cells etc.


What is a simple carb? Give examples

Simple Carbohydrates (one sugar) C-H
Glucose, fructose, galactose
Disaccharides [degree of polymerization (DP) = 2]
Maltose, sucrose, lactose


What is a complex carb, give examples?

Complex Carbohydrates
Oligosaccharides [DP = 3-10] (larger list)
Fructo-, galacto-oligosaccharides
Polysaccharides [DP = > 10]
Starch (indigestible), cellulose (fiber molecule also), glycogen (animal made stored in liver / muscle)