Nx 100 Ch 24 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Nx 100 Ch 24 Deck (53):
1

vital signs

temperature, pulse, respiration, and blood pressure

2

body temperature

the difference between heat loss and heat production
normal 97F (36C) to 99.5F (37.5C)

3

4 mechanisms of transfer of body heat to environment

radiation
convection
evaporation
conduction

4

4 sources of heat loss

skin (primary)
evaporation of sweat
warming and humidifying transpired air
eliminating urine and feces

5

heat production

metabolism (primary)
hormones, exercise, muscle movement
epinephrine and norepinephrine can alter metabolism and heat production

6

the body's thermostat

the thermoregulatory center in the hypothalamus

7

2 primary ways to measure body temp

surface - oral, axillary, and skin surface

core - tympanic, rectal, or invasive devices

8

Fahrenheit to centigrade conversion

C=(F-32)/1.8

9

centigrade to Fahrenheit conversion

F=(C*1.8)+32

10

factors affecting temperature

circadian rhythms - body temp lowest in morning, highest in late afternoon
age and gender - very young and very old have difficulty maintaining temp; women greater variability
environment

11

afebrile

without fever; normal body temp

12

febrile

having a fever

13

fever

above normal body temp
also known as pyrexia
brought on by upward displacement of themoregulatory set point

14

when taking an oral/sublingual temp, remember...

to wait 15 to 30 minutes if patient has had cold/hot food/fluids or smoking or chewing gum

15

when taking an axillary temp, remember...

to wait 15-30 minutes if axilla has just been washed

16

cardiac output

the amount of blood pumped by the heart in one minute
CO=SV*HR

17

pulse is controlled by...

the sinoatrial node on the heart

18

normal pulse rate

60 - 100 beats/min

19

tachycardia

rapid heart rate
100 to 180 beats/min

20

bradycardia

slow heart rate
<60 beats/min
may be normal in athletes

21

dysrhythmia

irregular pulse

22

pulse deficit

the difference between apical and radial pulse

23

when taking an apical pulse, remember...

to count for 1 full minute (unlike radial which is only 30 seconds)

24

normal respiratory rate

12 - 20/min
infants and young children breath more readily

25

eupnea

normal respiration

26

tachypnea

elevated resp rate
>24 breaths/min

27

bradypnea

decreased resp rate
<10 breaths/min

28

apnea

periods of no breathing

29

dyspnea

difficulty or labored breathing

30

orthopnea

being able to breath easier in an upright position

31

systolic

maximum pressure; corresponds w/ contraction of L ventricle

32

diastolic

minimum pressure; corresponds with relaxation of L ventricle

33

pulse pressure

the difference between systolic and diastolic blood pressures

34

normal cardiac output

3.5 - 8L/min

35

normal blood pressure

120/80

36

stage I hypertension

systolic: 140-159
diastolic: 90-99

37

stage II hypertension

systolic: >/=160
diastolic: >/=100

38

hypotension

below normal bp; may be normal in athletes
systolic: 90-115

39

True/False: a single bp reading is significant

False: 2 or more subsequent readings are needed before diagnosing high bp

40

risk factors for hypertension

family history, sedentary lifestyle, obesity, continual stress, smoking, alcohol consumption, HIGH SALT, HIGH FAT, HIGH CALORIE DIET

41

2 types of hypertension

primary/essential - without a cause
secondary - caused by a known pathology

42

orthostatic hypotension

associated w/ weakness or fainting when one rises to an erect position

43

radiation

diffusion or dissemination of heat; exposed skin radiates heat

44

convection

dissemination of heat by motion between areas of unequal density; fan blowing cool air across warm surface

45

evaporation

conversion of liquid to a vapor; evaporation of sweat

46

conduction

transfer of heat directly to another object; an ice pack

47

intermittent fever

intermittent: alternates between periods of fever and normal temp

48

remittent fever

remittent: fluctuates more than 3.6F above normal but never reaches normal

49

constant fever

constant: elevated consistently with fluctuations of less than 3.6F (2C)

50

relapsing fever

body temp returns to normal for a day, but then fever returns

51

crisis (as related to fever)

fever returns to normal suddenly

52

lysis (as related to fever)

fever returns to normal gradually

53

pulse sites

temporal
carotid
brachial
radial
femoral
popliteal
posterior tibial
dorsalis pedis