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Flashcards in Nx 102 Cancer Deck (58):
1

tumor

-lump, mass, swelling
-may be neoplastic mass or an accumulation of fluid

2

neoplasm

-abnormal mass of tissue w/ no purpose
-may be harmful to host
-may be benign or malignant (CANCER)

3

cancer

-malignant neoplasms

4

most cancers occur in people older than ____

65

5

this is the second leading cause of death in the US

cancer (men: lung, prostate, colorectal. women: lung, breast, colorectal)

6

African american women have lower occurrences of cancer but higher death rates. Why?

exposure, economics, education, access to health care

7

definition of cell proliferation (as related to cancer)

uncontrolled growth w/ ability to metastasize, destroy tissue, or cause death

8

5 proliferative (growth) patterns

-hyperplasia
-metaplasia
-dysplasia
-anaplasia
-neoplasia

9

hyperplasia

increased cell production in a normal tissue or organ

10

metaplasia

conversion of mature cell into another type of cell

11

dysplasia

abnormal development or growth of tissues organs or cells

12

anaplasia

loss of structural differentiation within a cell or group of cells
-differ from the parent cells

13

neoplasia

-uncontrolled cell growth
-the process of tumor formation

14

apoptosis

programmed cell death

15

cancer development, from normal to neoplastic, is ______, not a _______

a process; a single event

16

3 stages of carcinogenesis

initiation
promotion
progression

17

initiation

- normal cell becomes abnormal when exposed to initiator
-DNA is damaged (reversible or permanent)
-initiators are carcinogens (viruses, chemicals, physical agents, hormones, etc)

18

4 oncogenic viruses

HPV, EBV, hepatitis, HIV

19

HPV

-linked to cervical cancer
-60 different types

20

EBV

-related to hepatitis
-linked to 4 cancers: burketts lymphoma, nasopharyngeal cancer, B-cell lymphoma, hodgkin lymphoma

21

hepatitis

-causes liver infection and cancer

22

HIV

-pt has increased risk of cancers: kaposi's sarcoma and non-hodgkin's lymphoma

23

H. pylori

-linked to gastric cancer
-changes gastric mucosa leading to chronic inflammation and reduced acid production

24

physical agents (carcinogenic)

exposure to sunlight - UV
exposure to ionizing radiation
chronic irritation or inflammation
tobacco use

25

chemical carcinogens

-75% of all cancers related to environment
-smoking 30 %
-tobacco has 4000 chemicals (60 carcinogenic)

26

genetic factors

-almost every type of cancer runs in families
-breast cancer

27

dietary factors

decreased risk: lots of veggies and fruits
increased risk: fat, alcohol, salt-cured, smoked, red, processed meats, nitrates, high caloric intake, obesity

28

hormonal factors

-breast, prostate, and uterine cancers rely on hormones to grow
-oral contraceptives and estrogen therapy linked to breast cancer
-DES

29

diethylsilbestrol (DES)

linked with vaginal carcinomas

30

natural killer cells

-major component of the body's defenses against cancer
-subpop of lymphocytes (antiviral and antitumor)

31

tumor-associated antigens

antigens on tumor cells the immune system recognizes as foreign
-elicits a cellular and humoral response

32

promotion

-occurs with additional assualts of the cells by promoting agents
-cells irreversibly initiated can remain latent for a long time

33

progression

cells become increasingly malignant in appearance and behavior
-propensity to develop into invasive, metastases

34

carcinogens

agents that initiate or promote cellular transformation

35

characteristics of neoplams

-uncontrolled growth
-abnormal differentiation
-no apoptosis
-benign or malignant

36

benign neoplasm

-well differentiated (they look like parent cell)
-progressive, slow growth
-no invasion or metastasis
-encapsulated = easier to remove
-no death or tissue damage unless their location interferes w functioning or compresses

37

malignant neoplasms

-undifferentiated w/ anaplasia and atypical structure (little resemblance to parent cell)
-invasive and can metastasize
-little demarcation = harder to remove
-causes systemic effects: anemia, weakness, weight loss

38

2 types of malignant neoplasms

solid and hematologic

39

solid malignant neoplasm

- usually confined to a tissue unitl metastasis

40

hematologic malignant neoplasm

- involves blood forming cells that naturally migrate to blood and lymph, metastasising from the start

41

naming benign tumors

parent tissue + -OMA ex. osteoma

42

naming malignant tumors

same as naming benign EXCEPT:
-carcinoma involves epithelial tissue
-sarcoma involves mesenchymal tissues

43

cancer in situ

-localized cancer
-can usually be removed surgically
-cancer in situ of cervix is 100% curable

44

a tumor is clinically evident when it is ____ (size)

1 cm (or 1 billion cells)
-takes about 30 doublings to reach this size

45

the first evidence of metastasis is....

the presence of tumor cells in the local lymph nodes

46

hematogenous spread

-metastasis via the blood
-typical of sarcomas
-liver is common organ to be metastasized by cancers from GI, spleen, and pancreas

47

angiogenesis

-formation of new blood vessels to feed growing tumor
-requires angiogen production

48

clinical manifestation of metastasis

-no body function left unaffected
-tissues of differing origin found in weird places (like lung tissue in brain)

49

common clinical manifestations of cancer

weight loss, weakness, pain, CNS alterations, hematologic and metabolic alterations

50

Dx of cancer

-determine presence and extent of tumor
-identify possible metastasis/invasion
-evaluate function of involved and uninvolved body systems
-biopsy for grading and staging

51

staging

determines size of tumor and existance of possible local invasion and metastasis
-TNM

52

grading

classification of tumor cells by type of tissue of origin and degree of differentiation
-grades I to IV

53

X-rays, CT, MRI, PET, ultrasound

-used to diagnose cancer and/or to elaluate the effectiveness of Tx or radiation

54

primary prevention of cancer

-reduce risks through health promotion
-avoid carcinogens
-lifestyle, dietary changes
-education

55

secondary prevention of cancer

-screenings (PAP, mammography)
-ID pts at high risk

56

nurses should learn to...

recognize, intervene, and provide support for the human response to living with cancer

57

7 signs of cancer
CAUTION

Changes in bowel/bladder habits
A sore that wont heal
Unusual bleeding or discharge
Thickening or lump
Indigestion or difficulty swallowing
Obvious changes in wart or mole
Nagging coughing or hoarseness

58

palliation

the goal for care in terminal care patients