Nx 102 Immunological Function Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Nx 102 Immunological Function Deck (38):
1

2 types of immunity

natural, acquired

2

natural immunity

nonspecific, present at birth, the first line of defense

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acquired immunity

specific and develops after birth and after exposure to an antigen

4

2 types of acquired immunity

active - defenses developed by ones own body
passive - temporary; immunizations or through breast milk

5

3 responses to invasion

phagocytic response
humoral/antibody mediated response
cellular immune response

6

phagocytic immune response

-primarily involves granulocytes and macrophages (monoctye on roids)
-foreign particles and cellular debris are ingested and destroyed

7

humoral immune response

-begins with B lympoctyes that become antibody-producing plasma cells
-antibodies attempt to disable invaders

8

cellular immune response

-involves T lymphocytes that can turn in to cytotoxic (killer T) cells that can attack

9

antigens

foreign particle or organism that elicits an immune response

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antibody

proteins produced by plasma cells that attack and bind to antigens

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hypoactive immunity

immunodeficiency occurs

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hyperactive immunity

hypersensitivity occurs

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4 stages of the immune response

recognition
proliferation
response
effector

14

inflammation

a nonspecific defensive reaction to neutralize, control, or eliminate offending agent and prep site for repair

15

inflammatory response involves...

vasodilation, increased vascular permeability, and leukocytic cellular infiltration

16

total leukocyte count

4800 - 10800/mm3
(60 - 80% granulocytes)
(20 - 40% lymphocytes)

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3 granulocytes

neutrophils
basophils
eosinophils

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neutrophils

-primary phagocytes that arrive w/in 60 minutes

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eosinophils

-respond to allergic reactions and parasites
-neutralize histamine

20

basophils

-function in hypersensitivity (allergic) reactions
-produce and store histamine

21

mast cell

-reside in connective tissue and function similarly to basophils
-release histamine, esp in hypersensitivity reactions

22

monocyte

-phagocytic leukocyte
- helps destroy causative agent and signals other processes of immunity
-become macrophages upon stimulation

23

lymphocytes

-produced from lymphoid stem cells
-B cells mature in bone marrow
-T cells mature in thymus
-responsible for delayed allergic reaction, tissue rejection, and tumor destruction (cellular immunity)

24

plasma cells

-differentiated from B cells
-produce immunoglobulin antibodies

25

5 cardinal signs of inflammation

heat
redness
swelling
pain
loss of function

26

heat & redness

after initial vasoconstriction, vasodilation occurs to increase blood flow to the site of injury/infection - this causes heat and redness

27

swelling

vascular permeability increases at injury site, plasma fluids leak into inflamed tissue

28

pain

swelling causes pressure on nerve endings (nocireceptors), nerves are also irritated by chemical mediators

29

loss of function

related to pain and swelling

30

replacement (types of wound healing)

1st intention: wound edges are approximated and little scarring occurs. (no granulation)
2nd intention: no approximation, wound fills with granulation, may scar and have loss of specialized function
3rd intention: no approximation, healing is slow, major scarring

31

5 types of exudates

serous - clear
hemorrhagic - red
fibrinous
membranous - grayish
purulent -yellow/green (infection!)

32

anaphylactic type I hypersensitivity

Most severe
Immediate reaction
Primary chemical mediators responsible
May be local or systemic

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signs of anaphylactic type I hypersensitivity

edema, bronchospam, cardiovascular collapse, hypotension

34

cytotoxic type II hypersensitivity

system mistakes normal constituent of the body as foreign
associated with myasthenia gravis, goodpasture syndrome, infusion reactions, rh-disease of the newborn, drug induced immune associated hemolytic anemia

35

immune complex type III hypersensitivity

antibody-antigen immune complexes form and settle in connective tissue
joints and kidneys susceptible
assoc. w/ lupus, rheumatoid arthritis

36

delayed type IV hypersensitivity

known as cellular hypersensitivity
occurs w/in 24-72 hours after allergen exposure
mediated by t cells and macrophages

37

Infants are protected by ____

IgG, the rest don't cross the placenta

37

examples of delayed type IV hypersensitivity

contact dermatitis - cosmetics, adhesive tape, topical agents, plant toxins, medication additives