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Flashcards in obstetrics of small ruminants Deck (11)
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gestation of sheep? goats?

sheep-147 days 

goats-150 days, can induce with 2-3 ml of prostaglandin IM, occurs avg of 32 hrs llater


When should you u/s?

u/s between days 40 to 80

determine if pregnant/open, fetal numbers, gestational age, abnormalities


nutritional status

test feed quality

weigh what is being fed

BCS ewes/does a month before breeding, at pregnancy check and a month before lambing

sort ewes/does and feed for BCS


abortion management

for all farms: feed fresh, high quality, sheep specific trace mineralized salt; control where indoog and outdoor farm cats defecate by using litter box management, low risk disease risk plan for intro of new sheep

best practice plan: designed for each farm's situation; vax for Chlamydophilia abortus, Campylobacter jejuni, C. fetus subsp fetus; consider all abortions an emergency regarding dx and managements; consider feeding chemoprophylatic agents


what to do an abortion storm

isolationn and sanitation

do not feed on ground

destroy infected placenta and fetuses

submit samples to dx lab include placenta

immediate vax

feed oxytetracycline or tetracycline

give remaining pregnant females abx injections


causes of dystocia


disproportionate size of ewe and lamb/doe and kid

malpresentation of fetus

failure of cervix to dilate (ringwomb)

vaginal prolapse

deformed lamb/kid


when to do a vaginal exam and possibly intervene

no progress after 1 hr of hard labor in primiparous female

no progress after 30-60 mins of hard labor in multiparous female

foul odor to uterine fluid/vaginal discharge

late gestation sick dam that hasn't lambed/kidded yet

meconium visible in amniotic fluid

only tail or only head present

if producer or DVM has a large hand, then should examine doe/ewe using vaginal speculum


vaginal examination procedure

restraint, often minimal

clean perineal area

use lots of lube and gloved hands

ID lambs/kids presentation

ID and correct posture

ballot ventral abdomen just ahead of udder checking for more neonates in utero



failure of late gestation cervix to dilate

actual cause unknown

suspected cases: selenium deficiency, campylobacter spp, infection, genetics, unknown

attempt tx with Calcium gluconate and prostaglandin, gentle ringing pressure of cervix attempting forced dilation, prostacycline applied to cervix

C section



vaginal prolapse

bladder usually trapped

cervical mucus plug may be disrupted leading to ascending uterine/fetal infection

sacrocaudal epidural solution

rare in goats

risk factors: ad lib high roughage diet, multiple fetuses, fat dam, short tail dock, genetics