Occupational lung disease Flashcards Preview

Clinical Medicine- Pulmonary > Occupational lung disease > Flashcards

Flashcards in Occupational lung disease Deck (18):
1

What is pneumoconiosis?

Occupational exposure to any number of irritants

2

Miners can develop?

Restrictive pattern of lung disease that progresses to pulmonary fibrosis

3

What is trapped in the lungs and phagocytosis by macrophages?

Carbon

4

Due to high levels of cytokines and inflammatory mediators, fibroblast are activated to secrete what?

Reticulin which forms a mesh of collagen

5

When mesh entraps macrophages and causes them to die and more collagen is laid down, what happens?

Arterioles become strangulated, necrosis occurs, bronchioles distend, fibrosis and emphysema occur

6

Treatment for pneumoconiosis?

No txt at this time. Manage symptoms, oxygen, bronchodilators, stop smoking, restrict further dust exposures

7

What is silicosis?

Exposure to silica

8

Difference in areas affected from chronic compared to accelerated silicosis?

Chronic- nodules in hilar lymph nodes
Accelerated- more widely distributed

9

Silica in lungs causes these inflammatory mediators to be involved?

Tumor necrosis factor alpha & interleukin 1

10

In asbestosis, accumulation of abestos leads to increase in alveolar and interstitial macrophages, neutrophils, lymphocytes, and eosinophils which cause?

Fibroblast proliferation and collagen accumulation lead to fibrosis

11

Later stages of asbestosis physical findings?

Fine-inspiratory crackles, cor pulmonale, clubbing of digits

12

CXR findings of asbestosis?

irregular bordered shadows of LOWER lung fields, thickened pleura, calcified plaques

13

This malignancy is strongly associated with asbestosis?

Mesothelioma

14

What is mesothelioma?

Neoplasm that affects the mesothelium of the pleural cavities of the lung

15

Clinical manifestations of pulmonary mesothelioma?

Dyspnea, cough, chest pain, fatigue, weigh loss

16

In a bronchoalveolar lavage of hypersensitivity pneumonitis, what will be higher?

CD-8 T lymphocytes > CD4 T lymphocytes

17

What is hypersensitivity pneumonitis?

Immune response in the lung tissue to a myriad of potential antigens

18

Causes of HP

Bird fanciers lung, Hot tub lung (Mycobacterium avium complex), Farmers lung (Thermophilic actinomycetes), cheese workers lung