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Flashcards in OCS: bone injury and repair Deck (44)
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What are the components that make up bone?

Cells: osteoblasts (build), osteoclasts (remove), osteocyte Ground substance: calcium phosphate (rigidity and hardness), glycosaminoglycans, and hyaluronic acid Fibrous tissue network: collagen (resists tensile stress), elastin (makes bone resilient)


Effects of aging on bone:

Osteoporosis: calcium related loss of mass and density can be caused by hormonal regulation being less efficient (calcitonin). Kidneys, GI tract, and endocrine system decrease in function thereby decrease calcium metabolism.


Define: compound (open) fracture

sharp ends of bone protrude through skin, or some projectile penetrates the skin into fx site.


Define: closed fx

skin remains intact


Define: perforating fx (gunshot-bullet penetration)

fracture may involve loss of bone from the effect of high level energy at fracture site


Define: depressed or fissure fracture

sharply localized blow depresses a segment of the cortical bone below the level of surrounding bone (eg Skull fracture)


Define: greenstick fracture

fracture is on one side of the bone but does not tear the periosteum of the opposite side (occurs in children)


Define: Spiral fx

caused by opposite rotatory forces pulling on the bone


Define: oblique fx

fracture oriented at an angle >30 degrees


Define: Transverse fx

fracture is oriented at a right angle to axis (straight across)


Define: avulsion fx

may be produced by sudden muscle contraction and piece of bone is pulled off, can also occur from traction on a ligamentous or capsular attachment


Define: comminuted fx

involves multiple fracture fragments


Define: stress fx

results from stresses repeated with excessive frequency to a bone


Define: Pathological fx

arises in abnormal or diseased bones (carcinoma, infection, osteoporosis)


Discuss the stages of bone healing: stage 1

Stage 1 (inflammatory phase, granulation stage, fracture stage, or clot stage): clot formation (1wk) and then macrophages start to remove the clot as granulation tissue forms in place of the clot (2wks) ** no clot formation with stress fracture**


Discuss the stages of bone healing: stage 2

Reparative phase or callous stage: Soft callous forms and the begins to mineralize into a hard callous. This stage takes 4-16 wks to complete.


Discuss the stages of bone healing: stage 3

Remodeling or consolidation stage: callus is replaced by woven bone which then is replaced into lamellar bone, takes 1-4 yrs to complete


Conditions that have a negative effect on bone healing:

Technical: infection, poor reduction, distraction, repeated gross motion of fracture fragments, loss of blood supply Biological: vascular injury, failure to mineralize callus, scar and fat tissue forms instead of the callus, inability to replace woven bone into lamellar bone (children with osteogensis imperfecta) Misc: poor nutrition, alcohol abuse, smoking


Effect of smoking on bone healing:

decrease in callous formation, increase in nonuniouns, decreased strength. Smoking and nicotine delay revascularization, inhibt cellular proliferation and function. Decreased callous strength = increased risk of fracture.


Effect of nutrition on bone healing:

Calcium important for bone mass. Decreased bioactivity of calcium from high-fat/high fiber diets, large doses of zinc/vitamin A, and high protein diets (increases urinary excretion of calcium)


Wolff's law and bone healing:

optimal stress is essential for bone strength during healing, lack of stress can decrease the strength


Define: closed reduction

use of casting or traction


Define: open reduction

surgical intervention using plates, screws, or other internal fixation devices


Define: rigid external fixation

combination of closed and open reduction using percutaneous pins and external stabilizing bars


Advantages of closed reduction:

No surgery, reduction of fx, shorter hospital stay (except traction)


Advantages and disadvantages of open reduction:

Advantage: prescise, early mobilization of joints, immediate stability with earlier return to full function Disadvantage: increased opportunity for infection, longer hospital stay, may require second procedure to remove metal devices


How does rigid fixation affect bone healing?

There is no stimulus for the production of the external callus from the periosteum or internal callus (secondary bone healing). 

Instead Primary bone healing occurs directly between the cortex of the two fragments.


What effects can internal fixation have on bone healing?

Improper placement or tightening of plates, screws, nut, or bolts may cause bone reabsorption because local stress concentration or decreased vascular perfusion.

Plates that are too rigid may cause bone atrophy secondary to bone not percieving compressive forces.

Secondary inflammatory response can lead to weakening of the bone and if the plate is left in stress in the plate bone interface can occur.


List advantages of WB'ing activities after sustaining a fracture?

enhanced rehab (improved ROM), shorter hospital stay, and less overall post fracture morbidity


What is a Salter Harris fracture?

This is a fracture of the epiphyseal (growth plate) which can be hard to detect on x-ray. This type of fracture can result in a growth disturbance.