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Flashcards in Okaps flashcards - Retina Deck (100):
1

what type of collagen is vitreous?

type II

2

what are elschnig spots

choroidal infarcts in severe hypertensive retinopathy

3

tertiary vitreous forms what structures?

zonules

4

stickler's systemic findings

hyperextensible joints, arthritis, orofacial findings, cleft palot Pierre Robin malformation complex

5

Causes of bull's eye maculopathy

drugs (chloroquine, chlopromazine, thioridzine, tamoxifen), confe dystrophy, stargardt's disease, inverse RP Batten's disease

6

what is wrong in gyrate atrophine

error of ornithine aminotrasferase leading to increaed ornithing

7

treatment of gyrate atrophy

pyridoxine and arginine restricted diet

8

risk factors for ROP

born less thant 36 weeks, less than 2000 g

9

threshold diseas

stage 3 ro with , zone 1 or 2 invovled, 5 or more continuous clock hours or 8 cumulative clock hours, plus disease

10

when should ROP be screened

4-6 weeks after birth or 30 weeks, which ever is later.

11

how often does ROP regress?

85%

12

degenerative retinoschsis in myopes or hyperopes

hyperopes

13

ERG finding in X linked retinoschisi

B wave decreased compared to a wave

14

retinoschiss vs. RD

schisis absolute scotoma

15

DRVS study

benefit of early vitrectomy in type I, not in type II

16

what is a Fuch's spot

pigment proliferation after absorption of macular hemorrhage from CNV in highly myopic individuals

17

Bull's eye maculopathy

chloroquine toxicity, cone dystrophy, Bardet Biedel syndrome, Batten's inverse RP, macular dystrophy, stargardt's

18

what are signs that choroidal nevus is malignant

subretinal fluid, orange pigment, growth, symptoms,

19

Ddx for decrase in b wave

siderosis, congeneital tationary night blindness, CRAO, qinne or methanol toicity, X linked retinoshisis

20

EOG

measures RPE function

21

Ocular findings in RP

PSC, myopia, optic disc drusen, KCN, glaucoma, Intermediate uvietis, PVD

22

Refsum's disease

increase in phytanic acid, pig retinopathy, cataracts, cerebellar ataxia, deafness

23

What mucopolysaccharidoses associated with pigment retinopathy?

Hurler, hunter, scheie, sanfilippo

24

Oguchi's disease

recessive form of stationary night blindnes 2-12 hr delay of attaining normal dark adapted rod thresholds

25

Fundus albipunctatus

recessive form of stationary night blindness, tiny yellow white spots sparing macula

26

what is the specificity gravity of silicone oil

0.975, slightly less than fluid in vitreous

27

where do trasumatic retinal dialyses occur

superonasal

28

difference between classic and occult CNV

classic hyperfluoresecen very early with boundaries, ocul hyperfluoresces later, may have indistinct borders

29

AR, chromsome 16 obesity, polydactyly, hypogonadism, MR, pigmentary retinopathy

Bardet-Biedell syndrome

30

ichthyosis and pigmentary retinopathy

Refsum and sjogren larsson

31

patients' about 40, bilateral subfoveal NVM

Sorby's macular dystrophy

32

ddx for crystalline retinopathy

tamoxifin, thioridizine, cystinosis, canthaxantin, primary hyeroxaluria, Bietti's talc retinophaty

33

laser photocoagulation schsis vs. RD

will be visible in outer layer of schiss, but not on bare RPE of RD

34

ddx of intraocular cartilage

PHPV, medulloepithelioma, teratoma, trisomy 13

35

five stages of ROP

line, rdige, ridge with vessels, RD (foveal and nofoveal), total funnel RD

36

ddx of periphery retinopath and macular dragging

incontnetia pgimenti, ROP, FEVR, x linked retinoschis

37

associations with best

strabismus, hyperopia

38

nonleaking CME

Goldmanfavre, retinoschiss nicotinic acid, RP

39

onset in 1st decade with drusen leding to atrophy

north caroline macular dystrophy (AD) ERG, EOG, normal

40

decreased VA between 40-50

Sorsby's AD ERG and Eog subnormal late

41

central pigmentary distrubances, good central VA, normal ERG, abnormal EOG

pattern dystrophies

42

severely reduced vision, complete color blinness, nystagmus, normal retinal exam

congenital achromatopsia

43

decreased vision, photoaversion, nystgamus. ERG: absent cone response, normal rod

blud cone monochromatism (X linked recessive)

44

which type of RP is worse?

X linked

45

type of scotoma in RP

inferotemporal

46

ddx of tunnel vision

glacuoma, functional, gyrate atrophy, vitamin A toxicity, occipital lobe stroke

47

ddx of nyctalopia

myopia, vitamin A, zinc deficincy, choroidemia, gyrate atrophy, CSNB, goldman favre

48

ddx salt pepper fundus

rubuella, leber's amaurosis, albinism, RP, syphilis, cystinosis, phenothiazine toxicity, pattern dystrophy

49

treatable RP

Bassen kronzweigh (abetalipoproteinemia), refsums's, gyrate atrophy

50

associations with LCA

chromosme 1, KCN, hyperopia, cataract, macular colobomia, MR< deafness, seizures, renal and muscloskeletal abnormaliteis

51

inverse RP

posterior pole more than periphery affected

52

punctata albescene

small white spots in mid periphery, no bone spiculares

53

deafness and RP

Usher's Hallgreen's alstrom's biedle bardet

54

eye syndromes with hearing loss

cogan's sticklers's waardenburg-Klein, Duane's

55

increased serum copper, ceruloplasmin, atypical RP

Refsum's

56

RP due to differntiacy in fat soluble viamins

CBC, cholesterol, stool, bassenkornzweig

57

RP due to vitamin deficiency

chronic pancreatitis, cirrhosis, bowel ressection

58

obesity, polydactyl, mental retardation, hypogonadism, short stature

biedl-Bardet syndrome

59

decreased vision 4th decade, rpe mottling

central arelolar choroidal dystrophy (AD)

60

decreased vision in 5th decade, yellow crystal in retina, corneal stroma

Bietti's ((AR)

61

normal vision, vf, color vision, may show paradoical pupillary dilation, scotopic photopic implicit times identical, decreased scotopic, photopic erg almost normal

congenital stationary night blindness

62

types of CSNB

fundus albipunctatus, oguchi's diasee, kandori's flecked retina, nourgaret and riggs type ( normal fundus)

64

femal carriers have salt and pepper fundus

chorooidemia, defect in choroidal vasculature (XLR)

65

scallaped areas of absent choriocapillus, seizures, increased ornithine

gyrate atrophy

66

corneal clouding and retinopathy

Huerl'er sna dScheie

67

Retinopathy only

Hunter's, Sanfilippo

68

Corneal changes only

Morquio, Maroteaux-Lamy

69

no corneal clouding or retinopathy

Sly

70

Sphingoliposdes with cherry red spot

Tay Sach's, Sandoff's, Neiman Pick, Guaucher

71

sphingolipodoes without cherry red spot

Fabry's, Krabbe's

72

composition of vitreous

99% water, type Ii colagen, volume 4ml

73

how many rods, how many cones?

120 million, 6 million

74

describe visual cycle

11 cis retinaldehyde turns into all tran

75

when do rods shed? Cones shed?

rods- during day, cones at night.

76

conditions which cause extinguished erg

rp, opthalmic artery occlusion, dusn, metallosi, rd, drug toxicity CAR

77

normal a wave, reduced b wave

CSNB, Oguchi's disease, x linked retinoschis, CVO, CRAO, myotonic dystrophy, quinine toxicity

78

abnormal photopic, normal scotopic

achromotopsia, cone dystrophy

79

abnormal erg, normal eog

csnb, x linked retinoschisis

80

fluoroscein absorptiona and emission

absorb 490 nm, emits 530.

81

uses of ICG

IPCV, occul CNV, NV with PED, recurrent CNV

82

AREDS formulation

vitamin C, E, betacarotein, zinc

83

Causes of CME

DEPRIVEN- Diabetes, epinpehrine, prostaglandins, RP, Irvine Gass, venous occlusion, pars palnitis, nicotinic acid maculopathy, othere XRT, parafoveal telangicectasia, goldmann FAVRE

84

causes of non leaking CME

Juvenile retinoschiss, goldman favre, RP, nicotinic acid maculopathy

85

type 1 mactel

unilateral, male?fmeale, coats spectrume, normal FA, OCT is not.

86

type 2 mactel

bilateral, acquired, symmetric

87

5 stages of sickle cell

periphery arterial occlusions, peripheral anastomoses, NV (sea fan, VH, vitreous traction with RD.

88

bilateral, young men, in middle east, india, peripheral nonperfusion

Eales disease

89

definition of ischemic vs. nonischemic BRVO

ischemic >>5 DD nonperfusion

90

threshold dose for radiation retinopathy

300 rads, starts 6 months to 3 years after.

91

decreased vision RAPD, neuroretintisi, hot disc

Leber's idiopathic stellate neuroretinitis

92

organisms for DUSN

ancylostoma caninum, baylisacris proncyonis

93

toxic retinopathies

chloroquine, thioridazine, chlorpormazine, quinine, tamoxofen (crystals), canthaxanthin (yellow deposits, methoxyfluorine, talc

94

atypical nonleaking CME due to intracellular edema of Muller's cell

nicotininc acid maculopathy

95

combined harmartoma of retina nad rpe association

nf2

96

hihg energy radioactiv plaques

cobalt 60, iridum 192

97

low energy plaques

iodine 125, palladium 106

98

small COMTs trial

apical height 1-3 mm, basal 5-16mm

99

medium comt trial

apical 2.5-10m, basal <16, enucleation same as radiation

100

large COMT trial

preenucleatioin radiation does not change survival rate.

101

ddx of amelanotic choroidal mass

amelanotic melanoma, choroidal osteoma, granuloma, porsterior scleritis