What is the Control Cycle?
5 element theory
aka: Overacting Cycle
'Earth overacts upon Water, Water overacts upon Fire..."
What is Yang Wei Mai?
- aka Yang Linking Vessel
- connects all yang channels
- dominates exterior of body
- tx alternating chills/fever, px on lateral aspect of body
Lung in TCM
- connecting internal and external world thru nose/pores
- upper source of water
- excretes fluids through sweat via cou li space
- diffuses body fluids to skin/mms as a mist
- descends body fluid to KD
- "delicate" organ, easily attacked
- in charge of Regulation
- governs qi & respiration
- diffuses/descends qi and fluids
- controls channels and blood vessels
- regulates water passages
- controls skin and body hair
- opens to the nose
- houses Po
- affected by grief, sadness
- controls voice - strength, tone, clarity
- Zong Qi promotes function
What are the correspondences to Metal?
Quality: can be molded and can harden, inward/contractile movement
Cycles: Metal creates Water, Metal controls Wood, Metal insults Fire
ZangFu: LU, LI
Sense Organ: nose
Tongue: posterior tip
Where do the ZangFu show up on tongue?
- tip = HT
- behind tip = LU
- center = ST/SP
- sides = LV/GB
- root = UB, KD, SI, LI
- back = lower jiao
- middle = middle jiao
- front = upper jiao
Explain Blood Vessels in TCM
- seen as a container for blood
- indirectly related to KD Essence
- transports blood, refined food essences, qi to body to nourish tissues
Stomach in TCM
- with ST, root of post heaven essence
- controls receiving
- controls R&R
- controls transporting food essences
- controls descending qi
- origin of fluids
- determines coating on tongue
- only Yang channel on anterior body
- Sea of Food & Drink
What is Yang Qiao Mai?
- aka Yang Stepping, Yang Heel, Yang Motility
- absorbs excess yang in head (mania, agitation, bells, epilepsy, insomnia, etc)
- controls closing eyes
- influences outer mms of legs
- offshoot of UB channel
- tx lateral legs, back, neck, head, eyes, unilateral BP/sciatica
Small Intestine in TCM
- controls receiving from ST and transforming
- separates fluids
- sends clear fluid to UB, dirty fluid to LI
- influences mental clarity and understanding
What are the Extraordinary Organs?
- 6 Yang Organs
- function like yin organ (storing but not excreting)
- shaped like yang organ (hollow - filling and discharging)
- all are functionally related to KD
- Blood Vessels
- Gall Bladder
What are the Spirits associated with the ZangFu?
Shen = mind/spirit of HT, most subtle/non-material of vital substances, consciousness
Hun = Ethereal Soul of LV, leaves at death, responsible for life planning, goals, inspiration
Po = Corporeal Soul of LU, leaves body at death, formed at conception, responsible for feelings/sensation
Yi = Intellect of SP, memorization for work/study, prone to overwork/overstudy
Zhi = Willpower of KD, ability to follow thru, short term memory
What do the colors and coats on tongue mean?
- yellow = heat
- white = cold
- red = heat
- pale = blood/yang/qi deficiency
- purple = blood stagnation
What are the correspondences to Earth?
Quality: growing, reaping, sowing, balance
Cycles: Earth creates Metal, Earth controls water, Earth insults Wood
ZangFu: ST, SP
Sense Organ: mouth
Season: late season
What are Lower He Sea Points?
- There are 6 Lower He Sea Points representing 3 Foot Yang and 3 Hand Yang Channels
- Indicated for diseases of the 6 Bowels (Fu Organs)
- ST (ST36), LI (ST37), SI (ST39), GB (GB34), UB (UB40), SJ (UB39)
Urinary Bladder in TCM
- removes water by qi transformation
- stores/excretes urine
- receives energy from KD
- associated with jealousy, grudges, suspicion
What are Minute Collaterals?
- allow qi and blood to reach smallest areas of body
What are the 6 external evils?
wind, heat, summer heat, cold, dry, damp
Explain Marrow in TCM
- produced by KD Essence and Post Heaven Qi
- fills Brain, spinal cord and bones
- forms bone marrow
What is KD Essence responsible for?
- determines GROWTH, reproduction, ageing, fertility
- basis of KD QI - KD yin/yang are basis for whole body
- PRODUCES MARROW - fills bone, brain ("sea of marrow"), spinal cord
- basis of CONSTITUTIONAL STRENGTH - supports Wei Qi
- basis for THREE TREASURES ("San Bao") = Essence, Qi, Shen (most material to least)
What is the Ren Mai?
- aka Conception Vessel
- has own points
- "Sea of Yin" - regulates all Yin Channels
- originates in KD, flows thru Uterus to Ren1, up abdomen midline to face
- tx reproduction, GYN, abdomen, thorax, lungs, throat, face
What are the yang organs?
- Large Intestine
- Small Intestine
- Gall Bladder
- San Jiao
- Gall Bladder
What are the Cutaneous Regions?
- aka dermatomes
- 12 regions overlaying network of channels
- first line attacked by external pathogens
- can manifest disorders of deeper channels
- Blue = px, Red = heat, Pale = deficiency and cold
- accessed thru massage, cupping
What is Food Qi?
- what we eat
- rotted and ripened in ST
- transformed in SP
- sent by SP to LU to combine with Da Qi to produce Zong Qi
- sent by LU to HT to create blood with KI qi and Original Qi
What is Gathering Qi?
Zong Qi/Ancestral Qi/Chest Qi
- created from Gu Qi and Da Qi (from SP & LU)
- assists LU with controlling qi and breathing
- assists HT to control blood and vessels
- gathers in throat
- influences speech (HT)
- determines strength of voice (LU)
- affected by emotions
- flows downward to assist KD
- gathers in the chest = "sea of qi"
What are the Functions of Channels?
- deep and connect internal organs
- 12 Primary, 8 Extraordinary, 12 Divergent
- Transport Qi & Blood thru body
- Protect body - nourish internal, protect external from deeper invasion
- Treat Imbalances/disease in channel, organ, between channels, visible s/s
- Transmit Qi to diseased area via points
What are the directions of qi associated with ZangFu?
Lung - "lid", "canopy", decends
Liver - smooth flow in all directions
Kidney - decends (fluids) , ascends in relation to LU
Spleen - upward (sends gu qi up to LU), holds organs in place
Stomach - downward
Heart - generally downward, but no related pathology
Explain Bones in TCM
- structural framework of body
- houses marrow
- functionally related to KD
San Jiao in TCM
- mobilizes Original Qi
- controls transportation of qi
- controls water passages and excretion of fluids
- divides the body
- communication center for whole body
- Upper = from diaphragm up, "mist"
- Middle = diaphragm to umbilicus, "muddy pool"
- Lower = below umbilicus, "drainage ditch"
What is the Du Mai?
- aka Governing Vessel
- has own points
- "Sea of Yang" - influences all yang channels
- strengthens spine, tonifies KD yang/Ming Men
- nourish brain/spinal cord
- expels interior & exterior wind
- originates at MingMen, down to perineum, Ren1, emerges at Du1, up spine, over head, to upper lip
- tx external genitalia, back, spine, nape, head
What are the 2 types of Exterior Conditions?
1. acute onset = Wind Cold
- fever & aversion to cold
- headaches/body aches
- thin, white tongue coat
- floating pulse
2. chronic onset = Bi Syndrome
- Cold Bi - one joint, relieved by heat
- WInd Bi - px moves
- Damp Bi - swelling in joints
- Heat Bi - severe px, warm and swollen joints, relieved with ice
What are the 4 aspects of the Yin/Yang relationship?
Opposition - opposite, nothing is totally yin or yang, constantly changing balance
Interdependence - cannot exist without the other
Mutual Consumption - in constant balance and continuous adjustment
Transformation - can transform into each other, cyclical
What are the correspondences to Fire?
Quality: blazes upward
Cycles: Fire creates Earth, fire controls metal, Fire insults wood
ZangFu: HT, SI, PC, SJ
Sense Organ: tongue
What are the times when Qi is prevalent in an organ?
- 3am-5am = LU
- 5am-7am = LI
- 7am-9am = ST
- 9am-11am = SP
- 11am-1pm = HT
- 1pm-3pm = SI
- 3pm-5pm = UB
- 5pm-7pm = KD
- 7pm-9pm = PC
- 9pm-11pm = SJ
- 11pm-1am = GB
- 1am-3am = LV
What are the 6 Channel Pairs?
- link a yin arm channel with a yin leg channel and yang arm channel with yang leg channel
- each circuit goes from chest to hand to face to foot to chest
- LU - SP
- LI - ST
- HT - KD
- SI - UB
- PC - LV
- SJ - GB
What are the Fluid Pathologies?
Fluid Deficiency - dryness, yin deficiency from diet, fluid or blood loss
Edema - swelling, retention of fluid from Yang Def of Sp, KD, or LU (pitting and non pitting)
Phlegm - from SP Qi Def, extreme dampness, SP cant T&T fluids which causes accumulation, heaviness/dizziness
What are the signs/symptoms of Full Heat vs Empty Heat?
- both have dry stools/constipation
- both have yellow scanty urine
Full vs. Empty:
- whole face red vs. malar flush
- thirsty vs. small sips
- heavy sweat vs night sweat/5 palm heat
- rapid overflowing pulse vs rapid, floating, thready
- thick yellow coat vs. no coat
- pressure feels bad vs pressure feels good
- bowels feel better after voiding vs. worse after
- feel better after exertion vs. worse after
Where are the locations of pulses?
"Happy Little Kids, Little Smelly Kids"
- back location = chi
- middle location = guan
- front location = cun
- back = KD Yang/Ming Men
- middle = SP/ST
- front = LU/LI
- back = KD Yin
- middle = LV/GB
- front = HT/SI
What is Essence?
- pure, precious substance
- most refined form
- housed in KD
1. Pre-Heaven/Pre-Natal Essence:
- present in the fetus
- basic constitution, vitality, strength
- fixed in quality and quantity
- comes from KD ("root of pre-heaven essence")
- physiological fire = Ming Men - generates yang
- accumulates at Ren 4
- foundation of Tian Gui (menstrual blood, sperm, ova)
- men's essence flows in 8 year cycles
- women's essence flows in 7 year cycles
2. Post-Heaven/Post-Natal Essence:
- diet - food and fluids
- related to ST/SP = "root of post-heaven essence"
3. Kidney Essence:
- combination of pre and post heaven essence
- maturation of pre-heaven essence at puberty
- replenished by Post-Heaven essence
What is Upright Qi?
- fighting part of defensive qi and constitution factors
- used in relation to a pathogen
Explain the Brain in TCM
- aka "Sea of Marrow"
- controls memory, concentration, mental clarity, intelligence, sensory info
- relies on KD Essence
- relies on HT blood for nourishment
What are Window of the Sky Points?
- regulate ascending and descending qi to and from head
- most located on neck
- indicated for throat or sense organ problems, rebellious qi
- LU3, ST9, LI18, SJ16, UB10, Ren22, SI16, SI17, DU16, PC1
Body Fluids and their associated ZangFu
LU - regulates water passages, controls skin/pores, moistens, diffuses/descends fluids, upper water source
SP - T&T of fluid into pure and impure
KD - lower source of water, moistens LU, gives qi to UB for excretion, helps jiaos move fluid
SI - separates fluids into pure and impure
SJ - assists T&T and excretion of fluids (mist, muddy pool, drainage ditch)
ST - source of body fluid
Kidney in TCM
- root of PreHeaven Qi
- foundation for yin/yang of organs
- stores essence
- produces marrow
- governs water - regulates urination, keeps LU moist
- anchors descending qi from LU
- opens to ears - low pitched tinnitus
- spittle - thick
- manifests in head hair
- controls lower orifices
- houses Zhi
- controls Gate of Life (Ming Men)
Name the Channels from most superficial to deep
- Cutaneous region
- Minute Collaterals
- Sinew Channels
- Luo-Connective Channels
- Primary Channels
- Divergent Channels
- Extraordinary Channels
- Deep Pathways of Primary/Divergent
What is the Triple Burner?
- not an actual organ
- connects sections of the body
Lower: KI, UB, SI, LI
What are the 8 Principle Identification Patterns?
- Interior - Exterior
- Hot - Cold
- Full (Excess) - Empty (Deficient)
- Yang - Yin
What are the sign/symptoms of YaiYang Syndrome?
- chills & fever simultaneously
- aversion to cold
- stagnation of wei during battle - not focusing on warming the exterior
- body aches - occipital, back, neck - dull & achy, caused by wei stagnation
- tongue is normal - pathogen is still on exterior
- acute & short lived
- superficial, floating pulse - wei is coming to surface to defend
Qualities of Yin
- organs store pure essences
- physical structure
What are the 5 Shu Points
Jing Well - fullness below HT, irritability, mental disorders, restoring consciousness
Ying Spring - heat, febrile disease
Shu Stream - heaviness in body, px in joints (Bi)
Jing River - cough, SOB, chills/fever, voice, throat
He Sea - rebellious qi, ST and Intestinal problems
**all yin channels start with WOOD
**all yang channels start with METAL
What are the 2 types of Body Fluids?
Jin = fluids
- thin, clear, watery
- circulate with Wei Qi on exterior
- controlled by LU
- moisten and nourish skin and mms
- component of blood
Ye = liquids
- heavy, turbid, dense
- circulate with Nutritive (Ying) Qi on interior
- moistens joints
- lubricates sense organs
- controlled by SP & KD
Liver in TCM
- stores blood at night
- smooth flow of qi
- houses Hun
- nourishes sinews
- manifests in nails
- opens to eyes
- affected by anger and wind
- LV blood regulates menstruation and anchors Hun at night
- ensures flow of bile
- governs tears
What are the 4 Qi Pathologies?
Qi Deficiency - depends on particular ZangFu s/s
Qi Sinking/Collapse - severe Sp Qi Def = prolapse
Qi Stagnation/Stasis - usually LV Qi Stag due to emotions, diet, trauma; dull, achy, unfixed px
Qi Rebellion - wrong direction
What are the correspondences to Wood?
Quality: can be bent and straightened, upward and outward movement
Cycles: Wood creates fire, Wood controls Earth, Wood insults Metal
ZangFu: LV, GB
Sense Organ: eyes
Emotion: Anger, jealousy
Flavor: sour, acidic
What is Nutritive Qi?
- nourishes tissues/organs
- closely related to blood, flows thru vessels
- activated with Acu needles
What are the 6 stages of Wind Cold Invasion?
Progression of disease, most exterior to most interior:
- TaiYang - UB/SI - most yang/external, suseptible to invasion
Explain GB as an Extraordinary Organ
- unlike other yang organs in that it stores pure fluid (bile)
- also does not deal with food, drink or waste products like other yang organs
- acts as the "Judge" - affects ability to make decisions and gives courage to act
What are the 4 Methods of Diagnosis?
- Auscultation and Olfaction
What is Yin Qiao Mai?
- aka Yin Stepping, Yin Heel, Yin Motility
- first reservoir to absorb excess yin and yang
- absorbs yin in abdomen (fluid retention)
- controls opening of eyes, mm tone of inner legs
- offshoot of KD channel
What is defensive qi?
- immunity, exterior, prevents "evils" from getting in
- resides in the Cou Li space between skin and mms
- yang in relation to Nutritive/Ying Qi
- under control of LU
- warms, moistens, nourishes skin and mms
- regulates sweating (opening/closing of pores)
What are Xi Cleft Points?
- aka Accumulation Points
- reflects excess or deficiency in channel
- used for acute, painful conditions, esp excess
- yin points used for bleeding problems
- sharp/intense px/red/swollen = excess
- dull/mild px/depression = deficiency
What is Yin Wei Mai?
- aka Yin Linking Vessel
- connects all yin channels
- dominates interior body
- nourishes blood and yin accompanied by psychological symptoms (anxiety, rumination, nightmares, etc)
- tonifies HT
Gall Bladder in TCM
- stores bile
- one of 8 extraordinary organs
- controlled decisiveness, capacity to make decisions, judge
- helps control sinews
- influences quality/length of sleep - waking early and unable to fall back asleep
What are the 6 Functions of Qi?
Transforming: change food and fluids into clear (yang) and turbid (yin) parts
Transporting: movement of substances thru body
Holding: holds fluids and blood in their vessels (vs leakage)
Raising: Holds organs up (vs prolapse)
Protecting: against external pathogens (Wei Qi, Upright Qi)
Warming: yang/heat for all physiological processes
Pericardium in TCM
- surrounds and protects heart
- helps HT to govern blood and house mind
- affected by heat
- involves healthy relationships with others
Spleen in TCM
- Ascending qi
- controls blood in vessels
- controls muscles and 4 limbs
- opens to mouth
- manifests in lips
- houses the Yi
- Affected by pensiveness/worry and dampness
What are Divergent Channels?
- branch out from 12 Primary Channels
- do not have their own points
- make internal links not made by Primary to strengthen yin/yang relationships
Divergent Channels of Yang Primary Channels:
- separate from primary on the limb
- enter related ZangFu partner
- resurface at supraclavicular fossa, neck, face and join Primary again
Divergent Channels of Yin Primary Channels:
- separate from primary on limb
- sometimes enter their own organ
- intersect with yang partner divergent
- join partner primary yang channel
Qualities of Yang
- protects/defends (Wei Qi)
Heart in TCM
- governs blood
- controls vessels
- houses shen (mind)
- opens to tongue - color, form, appearance, esp tip
- manifests in complexion esp face
- related to joy
- controls sweat
- controls sense of taste
- site of transformation of Gu Qi into blood
- responsible for blood circulation
- indirectly influences menstruation
- controls speech, talking, laughing
- affected by excessive/sudden joy, continuous mental stimulation, craving, heat
What are Sinew Channels
- 12 associated with Primary pathways
- circulate on periphery
- do not penetrate ZangFu
- follow lines of major mm groups
- reflect problems or disease of Primary, or injured directly due to trauma or external pathogens
- no points
- accessed with superficial tx (cupping/moxa/tui na)
What are the Four Sea Points?
- These points have a strong effect on their related system
- Sea of Marrow = Du16, Du20
- Sea of Blood = UB11, ST37, ST39
- Sea of Qi = Ren17, Du15, Du14, ST9
- Sea of Nutrition = ST30, ST36
What are Yuan Source Points?
- points on each of 12 primary channles where source qi resides
- tx disease in Zang - tonifies yin organs
- palpate to identify excess or deficiency of Yuan qi in related organ
**on yin channels, same as Shu Stream pt
**on yang channels, pt just proximal to Shu Stream
What is the Insulting Cycle?
5 element theory
aka: Counteracting/Humiliated by, child insults grandmother
'Earth Insults Wood, Wood insults Metal..."
What are the 13 Ghost Points?
- used for severe mental illenss ie manic depression, psychosis
- LU11, LI11, ST6, SP1, UB62, PC7, PC8, Du26, Du16, Du23, Ren24, Ren1, Hai Quan, Yu Men
What are the 12 Primary Channels?
- Lung Channel of Hand Taiyin
- Large Intestine Channel of Hand YangMing
- Stomach Channel of Foot YangMing
- Spleen Channel of Foot Taiyin
- Heart Channel of Hand Shaoyin
- Small Intestine Channel of Hand TaiYang
- Urinary Bladder Channel of Foot TaiYang
- Kidney Channel of Foot Shaoyin
- Pericardium Channel of Hand Jueyin
- San Jiao Channel of Hand Shaoyang
- Gall Bladder Channel of Foot Shaoyang
- Liver Channel of Foot Jueyin
What are Luo-Connecting Channels?
- 15 = from 12 Primary, GV, CV & Great Luo Connecting of SP
- branch off of Primary and Extraordinary to more superficial
- strengthen yin/yang pair connection
What are the pathologies of Blood?
- Blood Deficiency - insomnia, scanty period
- Blood Heat - reckless, LV Heat, skin diseases
- Blood Stasis/Stag - sharp, stabbing, fixed px
What are the correspondences to Water in 5 element theory?
Quality: moistens and flows downward
Cycles: Water creates wood, controls fire, and insults earth
ZangFu: KD & UB
Sense Organ: ears
What are the Front Mu Points?
- aka Alarm Points
- on chest & abdomen where qi collects
- may be palpated for tenderness indicating pathology in related organ
- tx disorders of 6 Zang Organs
- LU = LU1
- LI = ST25
- ST = CV12
- SP = LV13
- HT = CV14
- SI = CV4
- UB = CV3
- KI = GB25
- PC = CV17
- SJ = CV5
- GB = GB24
- LV = LV14
What are the Back Shu Points?
- located on Bladder channel, lateral to spine
- one point for each associated ZangFu
- used to diagnose and tx organ
- LU = UB13
- PC = UB14
- HT = UB15
- LV = UB18
- GB = UB19
- SP = UB20
- ST = UB21
- SJ = UB22
- KI = UB23
- LI = UB25
- SI = UB27
- UB = UB28
What are the 8 Confluent Points?
- on Primary Channels
- opens one of the 8 Extraordinary Vessels
- usually needled in pairs with a "coupled point"
- Ren = LU7
- Du = SI3
- Chong = SP4
- Dai = GB41
- Yin Qiao = KI6
- Yang Qiao = UB62
- Yin Wei = PC6
- Yang Wei = SJ5
Explain the Uterus in TCM
- aka Zi Bao
- most important of 6 Extraordinary Yang Organs
- regulates menstruation, conception, pregnancy
- stores blood and fetus
- discharges blood and baby
- connected to HT via Uterus Vessel (Bao Mai)
- connected to KD via Uterus Channel (Bao Luo)
- relies on KD for Tian Gui
- relies on LV for regulation of blood
- relies on CV for qi and essence
- relies on Chong Mai to provide blood
- relies on GV for yang energy
- HT and LV blood nourish Uterus and influence health of menses
- corresponding structure in men = "Room of Essence" where sperm is stored (aka prostate)
What are the functions of blood in TCM?
- dense qi
- moved by qi
- source = SP
- stored in LV
- governed and made by HT
- nourishes and moistens (yin)
- anchors the shen
- held in vessels by SP
- secondary support by KD
- LU assists HT and moves blood with Qi
- "Qi commands blood"
- "Blood is mother of Qi"
What is the Chong Mai?
- aka Penetrating Vessel
- one of 8 Extraordinary Vessels
- "Sea of Blood"
- related to Uterus
- controls all blood connecting channels
- regulates Qi and Blood in 12 meridians
- connect pre and post heaven qi
- originates lower abdomen, emerges at Ren1, connects with SP/LV/KD at inner leg
- tx GYN, abdominal, leg problems
What are the 8 Extraordinary Vessels?
- only Conception (Ren) and Governing (Du) have their own points
- act as reservoirs to absorb excess blood and qi from Primary, and can transfer back
- Link 12 Primary Channels
- Protect the body
- Penetrating Vessel = Chong Mai
- Conception Vessel = Ren Mai
- Governing Vessel = Du Mai
- Girdle Vessel = Dai Mai
- Yin Stepping Vessel = Yin Qiao Mai/Yin Heel/Yin Motility
- Yang Stepping Vessel = Yang Qiao Mai/Yang Heel/Yang Motility
- Yin Linking Vessel = Yin Wei Mai
- Yang Linking Vessel = Yang Wei Mai
What are Command Points?
- 4 Command Points target a large area of the body, and demand it's attention
- Abdomen (ST36), Back (UB40), Head/Nape (LU7), Face/Mouth (LI4)
- Additional (modern) = Chest (PC6)
What are the 4 states of imbalance?
- Excess of Yin/Full Cold/Excess Cold
- Excess of Yang/Full Heat/Excess Heat
- Deficiency of Yin/Empty Heat/Consumption of Yin
- Deficiency of Yang/Empty Cold/Consumption of Yang
What is Original Qi?
Yuan Source Qi
- foundation for all yin/yang energies
- motive force - circulates body - functional activity
- basis of KD Qi
- Conduit of San Jiao
- Facilitates transformation of blood - with Gu Qi
- Facilitates transformation of Gathering/Zong Qi into True/Zhen Qi
- accessed thru Source Points
What is Dai Mai?
- aka Girdle Vessel
- only horizontal vessel, circles abdomen like a belt
- divides body to superior and inferior halves
- related to LV, GB, KD, SP
- harmonizes LV/GB
- regulates circulation of qi in legs
- tx abdomen, LB, hips
What are Luo Connecting Points?
- point where primary channel splits to connect with yin/yang/int/ext pair
- each channel has its own for Primary, Ren, Du, and 2 for SP
- tx organ diseases and Luo channel diseases
Large Intestine in TCM
- receives digested food and fluid from SI
- absorbs some fluid and transforms into stools
- downward movement
- related to "letting go", not dwelling on past
What is the Creation Cycle?
aka: Generating, Mother/Child, Production, Promotion, Shen Cycle
"Every Man Wants Women Friends"
Earth - Metal - Water - Wood - Fire
'Earth creates Metal, Metal creates Water..."
What are the yin organs?
What is True Qi?
- last stage of qi refinement
- circulates in channels
- nourishes organs
- originates in LU
- made of Ying Qi and Wei Qi
What are Influential Points?