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Medicine > Oncology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Oncology Deck (264):
1

two broad types of lung cancer

small cell + non-small cell

2

small cell + non-small cell lung cancer differentiated by

histology

3

sub classes of non-small cell lung cancer

squamous cell, adenocarcinoma, large cell carcinoma

4

small cell + non-small cell lung cancer worst prognosis?

small cell

5

squamous cell lung carcinoma

centrally located, associated with parathyroid hormone related protein secretion (hypercalcaemia), clubbing, hypertrophic pulmonary osteoarthropathy, ectopic TSH secretion (hyperthyroidism)

6

centrally located, associated with parathyroid hormone related protein secretion, clubbing, hypertrophic pulmonary osteoarthropathy, ectopic TSH secretion

squamous cell carcinoma

7

hypertrophic pulmonary osteoarthropathy is

disorder associated with severe clubbing: subperiosteal new bone formation at the distal ends of long bones, metatarsals, metacarpals, proximal phalanges, symmetrical arthropathy of adjacent joints, clubbing, gynaecomastia

8

disorder associated with severe clubbing: subperiosteal new bone formation at the distal ends of long bones, metatarsals, metacarpals, proximal phalanges, symmetrical arthropathy of adjacent joints, clubbing, gynaecomastia

hypertrophic pulmonary osteoarthropathy

9

lung adenocarcinoma

peripherally located, gynaecomastia, hypertrophic pulmonary osteoarthropathy, most common lung cancer in non-smokers (still predominantly smokers affected)

10

peripherally located, gynaecomastia, hypertrophic pulmonary osteoarthropathy, most common lung cancer in non-smokers

adenocarcinoma

11

large cell lung carcinoma

peripherally located, anaplastic, poorly differentiated, poor prognosis, may secrete b-HCG

12

anaplastic

poorly differentiated

13

peripherally located, anaplastic, poorly differentiated, poor prognosis, may secrete b-HCG

large cell lung carcinoma

14

poorly differentiated cells

anaplastic

15

small cell lung cancer

neuroendocrine tumour, centrally located, arise from APUD cells, ectopic ADH (hyponatraemia), ACTH (hypertension, hyperglycaemia, Cushings, bilateral adrenal hyperplasia, hypokalaemic alkalosis) secretion, Lambert-Eaton syndrome, causes majority of paraneoplastic syndrome in lung cancer

16

APUD cells

small cell lung cancer arises from them: amine (high amine content) precursor uptake (high uptake of amine precursors) decarboxylase (high content of the enzyme decarboxylase)

17

neuroendocrine tumour, centrally located, arise from APUD cells, ectopic ADH, ACTH secretion, Lambert-Eaton syndrome

small cell lung cancer

18

why poor prognosis with small cell lung cancer

usually metastatic by time of diagnosis

19

types of staging for lung cancer

TNM and Stage I-IV

20

TNM staging

Tx, T0, Tis, T1 <3cm, T2 3-5cm, T3 5-7cm, T4 >7cm
Nx, N0, N1 hilum, N2 ipsilateral mediastinum, N3
M0, M1a bilateral lung, M1b single area outside of chest, M1c

21

Lambert Eaton syndrome/Lambert Eaton myasthenic syndrome (LEMS)

rare autoimmune disorder (voltage-gated calcium channels) characterised by muscle weakness, paraneoplastic syndrome
Differential diagnosis: myasthenia gravis

22

rare autoimmune disorder (voltage-gated calcium channels) characterised by muscle weakness, paraneoplastic syndrome

Lambert Eaton syndrome/Lambert Eaton myasthenic syndrome (LEMS)

23

small cell lung cancer management

limited disease can be cured with chemotherapy + radiotherapy, advanced disease is managed palliatively

24

limited lung disease can be cured with chemotherapy + radiotherapy, advanced disease is managed palliatively

small cell lung cancer

25

lung cancer risk factors

smoking (x10 risk), asbestos (x5 risk), arsenic, radon, nickel, chromate, aromatic hydrocarbon, cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis

26

cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis aka

idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

27

idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis aka

cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis

28

cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis/idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is

fibrosis of the alveolar walls imparing gas exchange

29

fibrosis of the alveolar walls imparing gas exchange

cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis/idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

30

three investigations for suspected lung cancer

chest radiograph, CT scan, broncoscopy + biopsy

31

additional investigation for non small cell

PET scan - establish eligibility for curative treatment

32

PET scan is an additional investigation for which lung cancer

non-small cell

33

PET scan uses

18-fluorodeoxygenase which is taken up by neoplastic tissue

34

2 week lung referral if

suspicious chest radiograph or >40 years + unexplained haemoptysis

35

suspicious chest radiograph or >40 years + unexplained haemoptysis

2 week lung referral

36

urgent 2 week chest radiograph if >40 years + 2 of the following or smoker + 1 of the following

cough, fatigue, shortness of breath, chest pain, weight loss, apetite loss

37

cough, fatigue, shortness of breath, chest pain, weight loss, apetite loss should prompt

urgent 2 week chest radiograph if >40 years + 2 of the following or smoker + 1 of the following

38

"consider" urgent 2 week chest radiograph if >40 years and...

persistent/recurrent chest infections, clubbing, supraclavicular lymphadenopathy/persistent cervical lymphadenopathy, chest signs, thrombocytosis

39

persistent/recurrent chest infections, clubbing, supraclavicular lymphadenopathy/persistent cervical lymphadenopathy, chest signs, thrombocytosis should prompt

"consideration" of urgent 2 week chest radiograph in >40 years

40

non-small cell lung cancer management

20% eligible for surgery, curative palliative radiotherapy, poor response to chemotherapy

41

20% eligible for surgery, curative palliative radiotherapy describes management of which lung cancer

non-small cell

42

surgical contraindications for lung cancer resection

general health, metastatic disease, FEV1 <1.5L, malignant pleural effusion, tumour near hilum, vocal cord paralysis, superior vena cava obstruction

43

general health, metastatic disease, FEV1 <1.5L, malignant pleural effusion, tumour near hilum, vocal cord paralysis, superior vena cava obstruction are contraindications for

lung cancer surgical resection

44

recurent laryngeal nerve supplies

vocal cords

45

vocal cords supplied by

recurrent laryngeal nerve

46

recurrent laryngeal nerve damage leads to

hoarse voice, difficulty breathing

47

hoarse voice/difficulty breathing can be caused by

recurrent laryngeal nerve/vocal cords damage

48

superior laryngeal nerve supplies

cricothyroid

49

cricothyroid responsible for

voice pitch

50

voice pitch controlled by

cricothyroid

51

cricothyroid supplied by

superior laryngeal nerve

52

complications of lung cancer

superior vena cava obstruction, Horner's, rib errosion, pericarditis, atrial fibrillation, metastases, ectopic hormone producion

53

lung metastasises to

bone, brain, liver, adrenals

54

superior vena cava obstruction, Horner's, rib errosion, pericarditis, atrial fibrillation, metastases, ectopic hormone producion are complications of

lung cancer

55

bone, brain, liver, adrenals sites of metastases for

lung cancer

56

2 week ENT referral for

persistent unexplained hoarseness of voice, unexplained neck lump

57

persistent unexplained hoarseness of voice, unexplained neck lump warrants

2 week ENT referral

58

acanthosis nigricans

symmetrical brown velvety plaques often found on neck, axilla, groid

59

symmetrical brown velvety plaques often found on neck, axilla, groid

acanthosis nigricans

60

acanthosis nigricals is associated with

gastrointestinal adenocarcinomas, diabetes mellitus, obesity, polycystic ovary syndrome, acromegaly, Cushing's, hypothyroidism, familial, Prader-Willi syndrome, oral contraceptive pill, nicotinic acid

61

gastrointestinal adenocarcinomas, diabetes mellitus, obesity, polycystic ovary syndrome, acromegaly, Cushing's, hypothyroidism, familial, Prader-Willi syndrome, oral contraceptive pill, nicotinic acid

associated with acanthosis nigricans

62

type of pleural effusion asociated with neoplasm

exudative, >30g/L protein (lung cancer, mesothelioma, metastases)

63

malignancies causing syndrome of innapropriate ADH

small cell lung, pancreas, prostate

64

small cell lung, pancreas, prostate can all cause

syndrome of innapropriate ADH production

65

SIADH biochemistry

hyponatraemia, low plasma osmolality, high urine osmololity (retained H2O leads to dilution of blood and concentration of urine)

66

hyponatraemia, low plasma osmolality, high urine osmololity

SIADH

67

myeloma mneumonic

CRAB: hypercalcaemia, renal failure, anaemia (pancytopaenia), bone pain

68

rouleaux formation

stacking of RBC on blood film = myleoma

69

stacking of RBC on blood film

rouleaux formation

70

multiple myeloma

plasma cell neoplasm in bone marrow, 60-70 year olds, bone disease (bone pain, osteoporosis, pathological fractures (vertebral), osteolytic lesions), lethargy, infection, hypercalcaemia, renal failure

71

plasma cell neoplasm in bone marrow, 60-70 year olds, bone disease, lethargy, infection, hypercalcaemia, renal failure

multiple myeloma

72

investigations for multiple myeloma

monoclonal serum proteins (IgG or IgA), urine Bence Jones protein, bone marrow, whole body MRI (bone lesions)

73

monoclonal serum proteins, urine Bence Jones protein, bone marrow, whole body MRI are investigations for

multiple myeloma

74

multiple myeloma diagnostic requirements

1 major + 1 minor or 3 minor with signs/symptoms

75

1 major + 1 minor or 3 minor with signs/symptoms are dfiagnostic criteria for

multiple myeloma

76

major diagnostic criteria for multiple myeloma

plasmacytoma, 30% plasma proteins in bone marrow, high M protein in blood/urine

77

plasmacytoma, 30% plasma proteins in bone marrow, high M protein in blood/urine

major diagnostic criteria for multiple myeloma

78

minor diagnostic criteria for multiple myeloma

10-30% plasma cells on bone marrow, minor increase in M protein in blood/urine, osteolytic lesions, low antibody

79

plasmacytoma

discrete solitary mass of neoplastic monoclonal plasma cells in bone or soft tissue

80

discrete solitary mass of neoplastic monoclonal plasma cells in bone or soft tissue

plasmacytoma

81

10-30% plasma cells on bone marrow, minor increase in M protein in blood/urine, osteolytic lesions, low antibody

minor diagnostic criteria for multiple myeloma

82

CA125

monoclonal antibody for ovarian cancer (+? elevated in cholangiocarcinoma)

83

monoclonal antibody for ovarian cancer

CA125

84

CA19-9

monoclonal antibody for pancreatic cancer (+ 80% of cholangiocarcinomas)

85

monoclonal antibody for pancreatic cancer

CA19-9

86

CA15-3

monoclonal antibody for breast cancer

87

monoclonal antibody for breast cancer

CA15-3

88

PSA

tumour antigen for prostate cancer

89

tumour antigen for prostate cancer

PSA (prostate specific antigen)

90

AFP (alpha-fetoprotein)

tumour antigen for hepatocellular cancer + teratomas/germ cell tumours e.g. testicular

91

tumour antigen for hepatocellular cancer + teratomas

AFP (alpha-fetoprotein)

92

CEA (carcinoembryonic antigen)

tumour antigen for colorectal cancer (+ ?elevated in cholangiocarcinoma)

93

tumour antigen for colorectal cancer

CEA (carcinoembryonic antigen)

94

S-100

tumour antigen for melanoma + schwannomas

95

tumour antigen for melanoma + schwannomas

S-100

96

bombesin

tumour antigen for small cell lung cancer, gastric cancer + neuroblastoma

97

tumour antigen for small cell lung cancer, gastric cancer + neuroblastoma

bombesin

98

commonest causes of hepatocellular carcinoma

hepatitis B and C infection

99

hepatitis B and C infection are the commonest cause of what cancer

hepatocellular

100

risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma

cirrhosis (secondary to hepatitis B/C, alcohol, haemachromatosis, primary billiary cholangitis), alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency, hereditary tyrosinosis, glycogen storage disorder, aflatoxin, oral contraceptive pill, anabolic steroids, porphyria cutanea tarda, male sex, diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome

101

primary biliary cholangitis aka

primary biliary cirrhosis

102

cirrhosis, alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency, hereditary tyrosinosis, glycogen storage disorder, aflatoxin, oral contraceptive pill, anabolic steroids, porphyria cutanea tarda, male sex, diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome are risk factors for what cancer

hepatocellular

103

primary biliary cirrhosis aka

primary biliary cholangitis

104

primary biliary cholangitis/cirrhosis

autoimmune destrucion of small bile ducts leading to cholestasis, leading to fatigue, pruitis and jaundice

105

autoimmune destrucion of small bile ducts leading to cholestasis, leading to fatigue, pruitis and jaundice

primary biliary cholangitis/cirrhosis

106

aflatoxin

poisonous carcinogen produced by certain moulds (causes HCC)

107

poisonous carcinogen produced by certain moulds

aflatoxin (causes HCC)

108

polyphoria cutanea tarda

blistering of sun exposed skin

109

blistering of sun exposed skin

polyphoria cutanea tarda

110

hepatocellular carcinoma presentation

often late, jaundice, ascites, RUQ pain, hepatomegaly, splenomegaly, pruitis

111

jaundice, ascites, RUQ pain, hepatomegaly, splenomegaly, pruitis are presentations of

hepatocellular carcinoma

112

screening for hepatocellular carcinoma is offerend to

people with liver cirrhosis secondary to hepatitis B/C or haemachromatosis or alcohol (males)

113

people with liver cirrhosis secondary to hepatitis B/C or haemachromatosis or alcohol (males) are entitles to

screening for hepatocellular carcinoma

114

management of hepatocellular carcinoma

surgery, transplantation, radiofrequency ablation, transarterial chemoembolisation, sorafenib (multikinase inhibitor)
DON'T BIOPSY! risk of seeding

115

surgery, transplantation, radiofrequency ablation, transarterial chemoembolisation, sorafenib is the management of

hepatocellular carcinoma

116

liver primaries make up what percentage of liver malignancies

5%

117

cholangiocarcinoma

bile duct neoplasm, jaundiuce

118

you shouldn't biopsy

suspected hepatocellular carcinoma for risk of seeding

119

bile duct neoplasm, jaundiuce

cholangiocarcinoma

120

risk factors fo cholangioncarcinoma

primary sclerosing cholangitis/sclerosis, typhiod, liver flukes

121

primary sclerosing cholangitis/sclerosis, typhiod, liver flukes are risk factors for

cholangiocarcinoma

122

Pemberton sign

PT to raises arms until they touch side of face, cyanosis/worsening SOB = +ve test

123

PT to raises arms until they touch side of face, cyanosis/worsening SOB = +ve test

Pemberton's sign

124

PSA can be falsely elevated by

BPH, prostatitis, UTI, ejaculation, vigorous exercise, urinary retention, instrumentation of the urinary tract, prostate biopsy, DRE

125

BPH, prostatitis, UTI, ejaculation, vigorous exercise, urinary retention, instrumentation of the urinary tract can cause, prostate biopsy, DRE

false elevation of PSA

126

causes of a superior vena cava obstruciton

non-small cell lung cancer, lymphoma, metastatic seminoma, Kaposi's sarcoma, breast cancer, aortic aneurysm, mediastinal fibrosis, goitre, SVC thrombosis

127

non-small cell lung cancer, lymphoma, metastatic seminoma, Kaposi's sarcoma, breast cancer, aortic aneurysm, mediastinal fibrosis, goitre, SVC thrombosis are all potential causes of

SVCO

128

SVCO management

dexamethasone, balloon venoplasty, stenting, chemotherapy, radiotherapy

129

dexamethasone, balloon venoplasty, stenting, chemotherapy, radiotherapy to manage

SVCO

130

aniline dyes

carcinogen, causes transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder

131

carcinogen, causes transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder

aniline dye

132

asbestos

causes mesothesioma and bronchial carcinoma

133

causes mesothesioma and bronchial carcinoma

asbestos

134

nitrosamines

carcinogen used in the manufacture of cosmetics, pesticides + rubber produciton causing oesophageal and gastric cancer

135

carcinogen causing oesophageal and gastric cancer

nitrosamine

136

vinyl chloride

carcinogen used in the manufacture of PVC causing hepatic angiosarcoma

137

carcinogen causing hepatic angiosarcoma

vinyl chloride

138

normal range for PSA

<4

139

<4

normal range for PSA

140

PSA can be falsely elevated by

BPH, prostatitis, UTI, ejaculation, vigorous exercise, urinary retention, instrumentation of the urinary tract

141

BPH, prostatitis, UTI, ejaculation, vigorous exercise, urinary retention, instrumentation of the urinary tract can cause

false elevation of PSA

142

wait how long after UTI/prostatitis treatment to measure PSA

1 month

143

wait 1 month to measure PSA after

UTI/prostatitis treatment

144

wait how long after ejaculation/vigorous exercise to measure PSA

48 hours

145

wait 48 hours to measure PSA after

ejaculation/vigorous exercise

146

Gleasdon score

used to grade prostate cancer, graded 3-5 based on the characteristics of the two most prevelent cell type e.g. 3+3 is lowest grade

147

score used to grade prostate cancer

Gleasdon score

148

prostate cancer is usually an

adenocarcinoma

149

rish factors for developing prostate cancer

age, obesity, Afro-Caribean origin, family history

150

age, obesity, Afro-Caribean origin, family history are risk factors for developing

prostate cancer

151

prostate cancer tends to originate in what part of the prostate

periphery > centrally therefore can be asymptomatic as obstruction symptoms don't develop until the tumour size is advanced

152

symptoms of prostate cancer

asymptomatic, obstruciton, haematuria, haematospermia, pain

153

asymptomatic, obstruciton, haematuria, haematospermia, pain could be symptoms of

prostate cancer

154

hormone therapy for prostate cancer includes

synthetic GNRH agonist (goserelin/Zoladex), antiandrogen (cyproterone acetate)

155

locally advanced prostate cancer is T...

T3/T4

156

flutamide should be used as pretreatment for

goserelin in hormone therapy for prostate cancer

157

active monitoring, watchful waiting, radical prostatectomy, external beam radiotherapy, brachytherapy are management options for

T1/T2 prostate cancer

158

management options for T3/T4 prostate cancer

hormone therapy, radical prostatectomy, external bean radiotherapy, brachytherapy

159

hormone therapy, radical prostatectomy, external bean radiotherapy, brachytherapy are management options for

T3/T4 prostate cancer

160

management options for metastatic prostate cancer

medical/surgical castration

161

medical/surgical castration is the management of

metastatic prostate cancer

162

watchful waiting in prostate cancer is suitable for

elderly patients, multiple comorbidities, low Gleason score

163

elderly patients, multiple comorbidities, low Gleason score are suitable for

watchful waiting

164

active surveillance in prostate cancer is suitable for

stage T1c, 3+3, PSA density <0.15, cancer in <50% of 10 biopsies (+ at least 1 rebiopsy) with <10mm of any core involved

165

stage T1c, 3+3, PSA density <0.15, cancer in <50% of 10 biopsies (+ at least 1 rebiopsy) with <10mm of any core involved patients are suitable for

active surveillance

166

radiotherapy side effects in prostate cancer

radioation proctitis, rectal malignancy

167

radioation proctitis, rectal malignancy are side effects of

radiotherapy in prostate cancer

168

side effects of a radical prostatectomy

erectile dysfunction

169

erectile dysfunction is a side effect of

a radical prostatectomy

170

hormone therapy for prostate cancer includes

synthetic GNRH agonist (goserelin/Zoladex), antiandrogen (cyproterone acetate)

171

when commencing goserelin treatment pretreat with

flutamide (antiandrogen) to prevent initial flair of prostate cancer symptoms when commencing on a GNRH agonist

172

flutamide should be used as pretreatment for

goserelin in hormone therapy for prostate cancer

173

wait how long after prostate biopsy to do a PSA

6 weeks

174

wait 6 weeks to measure PSA after

prostate biopsy

175

wait how long after DRE to do PSA

1 week

176

wait 1 week to measure PSA after

DRE

177

3 weeks concurrent treatment with goserelin

cyproterone acetate (antiandrogen) to prevent tumour flare

178

cyproterone acetate is prescribed for how long in hormonal management of prostate cancer

3 weeks concurrently with goserelin, start 3 days before

179

thrombocytosis

high platelets

180

high platelets

thrombocytosis

181

two main origin cell types of breast cancer

ductal and lobar

182

ductal and lobar describe the

cell type origin of the two most common breast cancers

183

ductal and lobar can then be further divided into

in situ and invasive disease

184

tumours compatible with wide local excision

solitary lesions, peripheral tumours, small lesion in large breasts, DCIS <4cm, PT choice

185

solitary lesions, peripheral tumours, small lesion in large breasts, DCIS <4cm, PT choice are indications for

wide local excision

186

tumours compatible with a mastectomy

multifocal tumours, central tumours, large lesion in small breast, DCIS >4cm, PT choice

187

multifocal tumours, central tumours, large lesion in small breast, DCIS >4cm, PT choice are indications for

mastectomy

188

breast cancer risk factors

BRCA (40% lifetime risk of breast/ovarian), 1st degree premenopausal relative, nuliparity, 1st pregnancy >30, early menarche, late menopause, HRT, COCP, previous breast cancer, not breastfeeding, ionising radiation, p53 gene mutation, obesity, previous surgery for benign breast lesion

189

BRCA (40% lifetime risk of breast/ovarian), 1st degree premenopausal relative, nuliparity, 1st pregnancy >30, early menarche, late menopause, HRT, COCP, previous breast cancer, not breastfeeding, ionising radiation, p53 gene mutation, obesity, previous surgery for benign breast lesion

breast cancer risk factors

190

Nottingham prognostic index

indication of survival using tumour size, LN, grade

191

indication of survival (breast cancer) using tumour size, LN, grade

Nottingham prognostic index

192

two types of breast reconstruction

latissimus dorsi, subpectoralis implants

193

latissimus dorsi, subpectoralis implants

types of breast reconstructive surgery

194

breast cancer screening programme

women 47-73, 3 yearly mammogram

195

hormone therapies

tamoxifen (pre and perimenopausal women), increase risk of endometrial cancer, VTE, menopausal symptoms
aromatase inhibitors (postmenopausal women)

196

tamoxifen and aromatase inhibitors

hormone therapies for breast cancer

197

biological therapy

herceptin for HER2 positive breast cancers

198

herceptin

biological breast cancer treatment for HER2 positive tumours

199

most common type of breast cancer

invasive ductal carcinoma aka NST no special type

200

NST

no special type = invasive ductal carcinoma

201

Modified Bloom + Richardson

grading system for breast cancer

202

grading system for breast cancer

Modified Bloom + Richardson

203

anastrozole

aromatase inhibitor

204

aromatase inhibitor

anastrozole

205

ovarian cancer risk factors

family history, BRCA, early menarche, late menopause, nuliparity
COCP is protective

206

family history, BRCA, early menarche, late menopause, nuliparity
COCP is protective

ovarian cancer risk factors

207

CA125 can be falsely elevated due to

endometriosis, benign ovarian cyst

208

CA125 should be performed if

abdominal distension, bloating, early satiety, loss of appetite, pelvic/abdominal pain, increased urinary urgency +/ frequency

209

abdominal distension, bloating, early satiety, loss of appetite, pelvic/abdominal pain, increased urinary urgency +/ frequency

do a CA125

210

ovarian cancer staging

stage 1 = tumour confined to ovary
stage 2 = tumour outside ovary, but within pelvis
stage 3 = tumour outside pelvis but within abdomen
stage 4= distant metastasis

211

bladder cancer risk factors

smoking (even up to 20 years after quitting), hydrocarbons, aniline dye, rubber production, cyclophosphamide

212

smoking (even up to 20 years after quitting), hydrocarbons, aniline dye, rubber production, cyclophosphamide are risk factors for

bladder cancer

213

bladder cancer TNM staging

T1 = subepithelial connective tissue, T2 = muscularis propria, T3 = perivesicular fat, T4 = further invasion
N1 = single regional LN in true pelvis, N2 = multiple regional LN in true pelvis, N3 = common iliac LN
M1 = metastasis

214

true pelvis

space between pelvic inlet and pelvic outlet

215

space between pelvic inlet and pelvic outlet

true pelvis

216

inflammatory breast cancer

progressive erythema, odema, in the absence of infection

217

breast: progressive erythema, odema, in the absence of infection

inflammatory breast cancer

218

T1/T2 prostate cancer is

local disease

219

T3/T4 prostate cancer is

locally advanced

220

CML symptoms

young PT, fatigue, weight loss, early satiety, splenomegaly, leucocytosos (basophils, eosinophils), night sweats, LUQ pan (splenic infarction), hepatomegaly, easy bruising, lymphadenopathy

221

young PT, fatigue, weight loss, early satiety, splenomegaly, leucocytosos (basophils, eosinophils), night sweats, LUQ pan (splenic infarction), hepatomegaly, easy bruising, lymphadenopathy are symptoms of

CML

222

CML is

a myeloproliferative DZ, of pluripotent haemopoietic stem cells, >90% of cases caused by Philadelphia ch

223

a myeloproliferative DZ, of pluripotent haemopoietic stem cells, >90% of cases caused by Philadelphia ch

CML

224

AML is

BM malignancy where blood cell precursors are arrested in an early stage of development, continue to proliferate w/i BM leading to pancytopaenia

225

PTs who have received an organ transplant are at risk of what type of ca

skin, particularly SCC, due to long term immunosuppression, therefore should avoid sun exposure

226

cyclophasphamide SE

haemorrhagic cystitis, myelosuppression, TCC

227

bleomycin SE

L fibrosis

228

doxorubicin SE

cardiomyopathy

229

methotrexate SE

myelosuppression, mucositis, liver fibrosis, L fibrosis

230

fluorouracil (5-FU) SE

myelosuppression, mucositis, dermatitis

231

6-mercaptopurine SE

myelosuppression

232

cytarabine SE

myelosuppression, ataxia

233

vincristine SE

peripheral neuropathy (reversible), paralytic ileus

234

vinblastine SE

myelosppression

235

docetaxal SE

neutropaenia

236

cisplatin SE

ototoxicity, peripheral neuropathy, hypomagnesaemia

237

hydroxyurea/hydroxycarbamide SE

myelosuppression

238

common tumours that cause bone mets

prostate > breast > L

239

common sites for bone mets

spine > pelvis > ribs > skull > long bones

240

schistosomiasis is associated with

SCC of the bladder

241

SCC of the bladder is associated with

schistosomiasis

242

nasopharyngeal ca is associated with

EBV infection

243

EBV infection is associated with

nasopharyngeal ca

244

reduce the incidence of haemorrhagic cystitis in cyclophosphamide use

hydration + mesna

245

ABL is associated with

CML

246

c-MYC is associated with

Burkitt's lymphoma

247

n-MYC is associated with

neuroblastoma

248

BCL-2 is associated with

follicular lymphoma

249

RET is associated with

MEN types II + III

250

RAS is associated with

many ca, esp pancreatic

251

erb-B2/HER2/neu is associated with

breast, ovarian ca

252

CML gene mutation

ABL

253

Burkitt's lymphoma gene mutation

c-MYC

254

neuroblastoma gene mutation

n-MYC

255

follicular lymphoma gene mutation

BCL-2

256

MEN types II + III gene mutation

RET

257

breast/ovarian ca gene mutation

erb-B2/HER2/neu

258

ALL is the most common malignancy among

children

259

peak incudence of ALL

2-5 y.o.

260

features of ALL

anaemia (lethargy, pallor), neutropaenia (f/severe infections), thrombocytopaenia (easy bruising, petechiae), bone pain (2' to BM infiltration), hepatosplenomegaly, testicular swelling

261

Wilms' tumour is

most common renal tumour in children

262

features of Wilms' tumour

abdo mass, painless haematuria, flank pain, anorexia, fever, ux

263

Wilms' tumour management

nephrectomy, chemotherapy, radiotherapy

264

prognosis in Wilms' tumour

good