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Flashcards in One Word_First Aid Deck (231):
1

Clinical presentation: "Cherry-red spot" on macula

Tay-Sachs (ganglioside accumulation) or Niemann-Pick (sphingomyelin accumulation), central retinal artery occlusion

2

Clinical presentation: "Strawberry tongue"

Scarlet fever, Kawasaki disease, toxic shock syndrome

3

Clinical presentation: "Waxy" casts with very low urine flow

Chronic end-stage renal disease

4

Clinical presentation: "Worst headache of my life"

Subarachnoid hemorrhage

5

Clinical presentation: Abdominal pain, ascites, hepatomegaly

Budd-Chiari syndrome (posthepatic venous thrombosis)

6

Clinical presentation: Achilles tendon xanthoma

Familial hypercholesterolemia

7

Clinical presentation: Adrenal hemorrhage, hypotension, DIC

Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome (meningococcemia)

8

Clinical presentation: Arachnodactyly, lens dislocation, aortic dissection, hyperflexible joints

Marfan's syndrome (fibrillin defect)

9

Clinical presentation: Athlete with polycythemia

Erythropoietin injection

10

Clinical presentation: Back pain, fever, night sweats, weight loss

Pott's disease (vertibral tuberculosis)

11

Clinical presentation: Bilateral hilar adenopathy, uveitis

Sarcoidosis (noncaseating granulomas)

12

Clinical presentation: Blue sclera

Osteogenesis imperfecta (collagen defect)

13

Clinical presentation: Bluish line on gingiva

Burton's line (lead poisoning)

14

Clinical presentation: Bone pain, bone enlargement, arthritis

Paget's disease of bone (↑ osteoclastic and osteoblastic activity)

15

Clinical presentation: Bounding pulses, diastolic heart murmur, head bobbing

Aortic regurgitation

16

Clinical presentation: Café-au-lait spots, Lisch nodules (iris hamartomas)

Neurofibromatosis type I (+ pheochromocytoma, optic gliomas) Neurofibromatosis type II (+ bilateral acoustic neuromas)

17

Clinical presentation: Café-au-lait spots, polyostotic fibrous dysplasia, precocious puberty

McCune-Albright syndrome (mosaic G-protein signaling mutation)

18

Clinical presentation: Calf pseudohypertrophy

Muscular dystrophy (most commonly Duchenne's)

19

Clinical presentation: Chest pain, pericardial effusion / friction rub, persistent fever following MI

Dressler's syndrome (autoimmune-mediated post-MI fibrinous pericarditis, 1-12 weeks after acute episode)

20

Clinical presentation: Child uses arms to stand up from squat

Gower's sigh (Duchenne muscular dystrophy; X-linked recessive deleted dystrophin gene)

21

Clinical presentation: Child with fever develops red rash on face that spreads to body

"Slapped cheeks" (erythema infectiosum / fifth disease: parvovirus B19)

22

Clinical presentation: Chorea, dementia, caudate degeneration

Huntington's disease (autosomal-dominant CAG repeat expansion)

23

Clinical presentation: Chronic exercise intolerance with myalgia, fatigue, painful cramps

McArdle's disease (muscle glycogen phosphorylase deficiency)

24

Clinical presentation: Cold intolerance

Hypothyroidism

25

Clinical presentation: Conjugate lateral gaze palsy, horizontal diplopia

Internuclear ophthalmoplegia (damage to MLF; bilateral [multiple sclerosis], unilateral [stroke])

26

Clinical presentation: Continuous "machinery" heart murmur

PDA (close with indomethacin; open with misoprostol)

27

Clinical presentation: Cutaneous / dermal edema due to connective tissue deposition

Myxedema (hypothyroidism, Grave's disease)

28

Clinical presentation: Dark purple skin / mouth nodules

Kaposi's sarcoma (usually AIDS patients [gay men]: associated with HHV-8)

29

Clinical presentation: Deep, labored breathing / hyperventilation

Kussmaul breathing (diabetic keoacidosis)

30

Clinical presentation: Dermatitis, dementia, diarrhea

Pellagra (niacin [vitamin B3] deficiency)

31

Clinical presentation: Dilated cardiomyopathy, edema, polyneuropathy

Wet beriberi (thiamine [vitamin B1] deficiency)

32

Clinical presentation: Dog or cat bite resulting in infection

Pasteurella multocida (cellulitis at inoculation site)

33

Clinical presentation: Dry eyes, dry mouth, arthritis

Sjögren's syndrome (autoimmune destruction of exocrine glands)

34

Clinical presentation: Dysphagia (esophageal webs), glossitis, iron deficiency anemia

Plummer-Vinson syndrome (may progress to esophageal squamous cell carcinoma)

35

Clinical presentation: Elastic skin, hypermotility of joints

Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (collagen defect, usually type III)

36

Clinical presentation: Enlarged, hard left supraclavicular node

Virchow's node (abdominal metastasis)

37

Clinical presentation: Erythroderma, lymphadenopathy, hepatospenomegaly, atypical T cells

Sézary syndrome (cutaneous T-cell lymphoma) or mycosis fungoides

38

Clinical presentation: Facial muscle spasm upon tapping

Chvostek's sign (hypocalcemia)

39

Clinical presentation: Fat, female, forty, fertile

Acute cholelithiasis (bile duct blockage)

40

Clinical presentation: Fever, cough, conjunctivitis, coryza, diffuse rash

Measles (Morbillivirus)

41

Clinical presentation: Fever, night sweats, weight loss

B symptoms (lymphoma)

42

Clinical presentation: Fevers, chills, heahache, myalgia following abtibiotic treatment for syphilis

Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction (rapid lysis of spirochetes results in toxin release)

43

Clinical presentation: Fibrous plaques in soft tissue of penis

Peyronie's disease (connective tissue disorder)

44

Clinical presentation: Gout, mental retardation, self-mutilating behaviour in a boy

Lesch-Nyhan syndrome (HGPRT deficiency, X-linked recessive)

45

Clinical presentation: Green-yellow rings around peripheral cornea

Kayser-Fleischer rings (copper accumulation from Wilson's disease)

46

Clinical presentation: Hamartomatous GI polyps, hyperpigmentation of mouth/feet/hands

Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (genetic benign polyposis can cause bowel obstruction ↑ cancer risk)

47

Clinical presentation: Hepatosplenomegaly, osteoporosis, neurologic symptoms

Gaucher's disease (glucocerebrosidase deficiency)

48

Clinical presentation: Hereditary nephritis, sensorineural hearing loss, cataracts

Alport's syndrome (type IV collagen mutation)

49

Clinical presentation: Hypercoagulability (leading to migrating DVTs and vasculitis)

Trousseau's sign (adenocarcinoma of the pancreas or lung)

50

Clinical presentation: Hyperphagia, hypersexuality, hyperorality, hyperdocilityüü

Klüver-Bucy syndrome (bilateral amygdala lesion)

51

Clinical presentation: Hypertension, hypokalemia, metabolic alkalosis

Conn's syndrome

52

Clinical presentation: Hypoxemia, polycythemia, hypercapnia

"Blue bloater" (chronic bronchitis; hyperplasia of mucous cells)

53

Clinical presentation: Indurated, ulcerated genital lesion

Nonpainful: chancre (1° syphilis, Treponema pallidum) Painful, with exudate: chancroid (Haemophilus ducreyi)

54

Clinical presentation: Infant with failure to thrive, hepatosplenomegaly, neurodegeneration

Niemann-Pick disease (genetic sphingomyelinase deficiency)

55

Clinical presentation: Infant with hypoglycemia, failure to thrive, and hepatomegaly

Cori's disease (debranching enzyme deficiency)

56

Clinical presentation: Infant with microcephaly, rocker-bottom feet, clenched hands, and structural heart defect

Edward's syndrome (trisomy 18)

57

Clinical presentation: Jaundice, RUQ pain, fever

Charcot's triad 2 (ascending cholangitis)

58

Clinical presentation: Keratin pearls on a skin biopsy

Squamous cell carcinoma

59

Clinical presentation: Large rash with bull's-eye appearance

Erythema chronicum migrans from Ixodes tick bite (Lyme disease: Borrelia)

60

Clinical presentation: Lucid interval after traumatic brain injury

Epidural hematoma (middle meningeal artery rupture)

61

Clinical presentation: Male child, recurrent infections, no mature B cells

Bruton's disease (X-linked agammaglobulinemia)

62

Clinical presentation: Mucosal bleeding and prolonged bleeding time

Glazmann's thrombathenia (defect in platelet aggregation due to lack of GpIIb/IIIa)

63

Clinical presentation: Multiple colon polyps, osteomas / soft tissue tumors, impacted / supernumerary teeth

Gardner's syndrome (subtype of FAP)

64

Clinical presentation: Necrotizing vasculitis (lungs) and necrotizing glomerulonephritis

Wegener's (c-ANCA positive) and Goodpasture's syndromes (anti-basement membrane antibodies)

65

Clinical presentation: Neonate with arm paralysis following difficult birth

Erb-Duchenne palsy (superior trunk [C5-C6] brachial plexus injury: "waiter's tip")

66

Clinical presentation: No lactation postpartum, absent menstruation, cold intolerance

Sheehan's syndrome (pituitary infarction)

67

Clinical presentation: Nystagmus, intention tremor, scanning speech, bilateral internuclear ophthalmoplegia

Multiple sclerosis

68

Clinical presentation: Oscillating slow/fast breathing

Cheyne-Stokes respirations (central apnea in CHF or ↑ intracranial pressure)

69

Clinical presentation: Painful blue fingers/toes, hemolytic anemia

Cold agglutinin disease (autoimmune hemolytic anemia caused by Mycoplama pneumoniae, infectious mononucleosis)

70

Clinical presentation: Painful, pale, cold fingers/toes

Raynaud's syndrome (vasospasm in extremities)

71

Clinical presentation: Painful, raised red lesions on palms and soles

Osler's node (infective endocarditis)

72

Clinical presentation: Painless erythmatous lesions on palms and soles

Janeway lesions (infective endocarditis)

73

Clinical presentation: Painless jaundice

Cancer of the pancreatic head obstructing bile duct

74

Clinical presentation: Palpable purpura, joint pain, abdominal pain (childö)

Henoch-Schönlein purpura (IgA vasculitis affecting skin and kidneys)

75

Clinical presentation: Pancreatic, pituitary, parathyroid tumors

Wermer's syndrome (MEN 1)

76

Clinical presentation: Pink complexion, dyspnea, hyperventilation

"Pink puffer" (emphysema: centroacinar [smoking], panacinar [α1-antitrypsin deficiency])

77

Clinical presentation: Polyuria, acidosis, growth failure, electrolyte imbalances

Fanconi's syndrome (proximal tubular reabsorption defect)

78

Clinical presentation: Positive anterior "drawer sign"

Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury

79

Clinical presentation: Ptosis, miosis, anhidrosis

Horner's syndrome (sympathetic chain lesion)

80

Clinical presentation: Pupil accommodates but doesn't react

Argyll Robertson pupil (neurosyphilis)

81

Clinical presentation: Rapidly progressive leg weakness that ascends (following GI/upper respiratory infection)

Guillain-Barré syndrome (autoimmune acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy)

82

Clinical presentation: Rash on palms and soles

2° syphilis, Rocky Mountain spotted fever

83

Clinical presentation: Recurrent colds, unusual eczema, high serum IgE

Job's syndrome (hyper-IgE syndrome: neutrophil chemotaxis abnormality)

84

Clinical presentation: Red "currant jelly" sputum in alcoholic or diabetic patients

Klebsiella pneumoniae

85

Clinical presentation: Red urine in the morning, fragile RBCs

Paroxysmal noctural hemoglobinuria

86

Clinical presentation: Red, itchy, swollen rash of nipple/areola

Paget's disease of the breast (represents underlying neoplasm)

87

Clinical presentation: Renal cell carcinoma, hemangioblastomas, angiomatosis, pheochromocytoma

von Hippel-Lindau disease (dominant tumor suppressor gene mutation)

88

Clinical presentation: Resting tremor, rigidity, akinesia, postural instability

Parkinson's disease (nigrostriatal dopamine depletion)

89

Clinical presentation: Restrictive cardiomyopathy (juvenile form: cardiomegaly), exercise intolerance

Pompe's disease (lysosomal glucosidase deficiency)

90

Clinical presentation: Retinal hemorrhages with pale centers

Roth's spots (bacterial endocarditis)

91

Clinical presentation: Severe jaundice in neonate

Crigler-Najjar syndrome (congenital unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia)

92

Clinical presentation: Severe RLQ pain with rebound tenderness

McBurney's sign (appendicitis)

93

Clinical presentation: Short stature, ↑ incidence of tumors/leukemia, aplastic anemia

Fanconi's anemia (genetically inherited; often progresses to AML)

94

Clinical presentation: Single palm crease

Simian crease (Down syndrome)

95

Clinical presentation: Situs inversus, chronic sinusitis, bronchiectasis

Kartagener's syndrome (dynein defect affecting cilia)

96

Clinical presentation: Skin hyperpigmentation

Addison's disease (1° adrenocortical insufficiency of autoimmune or infectious etiology)

97

Clinical presentation: Slow, progressive muscle weakness in boys

Becker's muscular dystrophy (X-linked, defective dystrophin, less severe than Duchenne's)

98

Clinical presentation: Small, irregular red spots on buccal/lingual mucosa with blue-white centers

Koplik spots (measles)

99

Clinical presentation: Smooth, flat, moist white lesions on genitals

Condylomata lata (2° syphilis)

100

Clinical presentation: Splinter hemorrhages in fingernails

Bacterial endocarditis

101

Clinical presentation: Streak ovaries, congenital heart disease, horseshoe kidney

Turner syndrome (XO, short stature, webbed neck, lymphedema)

102

Clinical presentation: Sudden swollen/painful big toe joint, tophi

Gout/podagra (hyperuricemia)

103

Clinical presentation: Swollen gums, mucous bleeding, poor wound healing, spots on skin

Scurvy (vitamin C deficiency: can't hydroxylate proline/lysine for collagen synthesis)

104

Clinical presentation: Swollen, hard, painful finger joints

Osteoarthritis (osteophytes on PIP [Bouchard's nodes], DIP [Heberden's nodes])

105

Clinical presentation: Systolic ejection murmur (crescendo-decrecendo)

Aortic valve stenosis

106

Clinical presentation: Thyroid and parathyroid tumors, pheochromocytoma

Sipple's syndrome (MEN 2A)

107

Clinical presentation: Toe extension/fanning upon plantar scrape

Babinski's sign (UMN lesion)

108

Clinical presentation: Unilateral facial drooping involving forehead

Bell's palsy (LMN CN VII palsy)

109

Clinical presentation: Urethritis, conjunctivitis, arthritis in a male

Reiter's syndrome (reactive arthritis associated with HLA-B27)

110

Clinical presentation: Vascular birthmark (port-wine stain)

Hemangioma (benign, but associated with Sturge-Weber syndrome)

111

Clinical presentation: Vasculitis from exposure to endotoxin causing glomerular thrombosis

Shwartzman reaction (following second exposure to endotoxin)

112

Clinical presentation: Vomiting blood following esophagogastric lacerations

Mallory-Weiss syndrome (alcoholic and bulimic patients)

113

Clinical presentation: WBC casts in urine

Acute pyelonepthritis

114

Clinical presentation: Weight loss, diarrhea, arthritis, fever, adenopathy

Whipple's disease (Tropheryma whippelii)

115

Equation: Attributable risk

= [a/(a+b)] - [c/(c+d)]

116

Equation: Cardiac output (2)

= rate of O2 consumption / (aterial O2 content - venous O2 content) = stroke volume × heart rate

117

Equation: Clearance

CL = rate of elemination of drug / plasma drug concentration

118

Equation: Effective renal plasma flow

ERPF = Upah × (V / Ppah) = Cpah

119

Equation: Ejection fraction

= (stroke volume / end diastolic volume) × 100%

120

Equation: Filtration fraction

= GFR / RPF

121

Equation: Glomerular filtration rate (2)

= Uinulin × (V / Pinulin) = Cinulin = Kf × [(Pgc - Pbs) - (πgc- πbs)]

122

Equation: Half life

t1/2 = (0.7 × Vd) / CL

123

Equation: Hardy-Hasselbalch equation

p^2 + 2pq +q^2 = 1 p + q = 1

124

Equation: Henderson-Hasselbalch equation

pH = pKa + log ([HCO3-]/0.03PCO2)

125

Equation: Loading dose

LD = Cp × (Vd / F)

126

Equation: Maintenance dose

MD = Cp × (CL / F)

127

Equation: Mean arterial pressure (2)

= cardiac output × total peripheral resistance = 1/3 systolic + 2/3 diastolic

128

Equation: Negative predictive value

= TN / (TN + FN)

129

Equation: Net filtration pressure

= [(Pc - Pi) - (πc- πi)]

130

Equation: Number needed to harm

1/ attributable risk

131

Equation: Number needed to treat

1/absolute risk reduction

132

Equation: Physiologic dead space

Vd = Vt × [(PaCO2 - PeCO2) / PaCO2]

133

Equation: Positive predictive value

= TP / (TP + FP)

134

Equation: Relative risk

= [a/(a+b)] / [c/(c+d)]

135

Equation: Renal blood flow

= RPF / (1 Hct)

136

Equation: Resistance

= driving pressure / flow = [8η(viscosity) × length] / πr^4

137

Equation: Sensitivity

= TP / (TP + FN)

138

Equation: Specificity

= TN / (TN + FP)

139

Equation: Stroke volume

= end diastolic volume - end systolic volume

140

Equation: Volume of distribution

Vd = amount of drug in the body / plasma drug concentration

141

Lab/diagnostic finding: "Bamboo spine" on x-ray

Ankylosing spondylitis (chronic inflammatory arthritis: HLA-B27)

142

Lab/diagnostic finding: "Boot-shaped" heart on x-ray

Tetralogy of Fallot, RVH

143

Lab/diagnostic finding: "Brown" tumor of bone

Hemorrhage (hemosiderin) causes brown color of osteolytic cysts. Due to: 1. Hyperparathyroidism 2. Osteitis fibrosa cystica

144

Lab/diagnostic finding: "Chocolate cyst" of ovary

Endometriosis (frequently involves both ovaries)

145

Lab/diagnostic finding: "Hair-on-end" (crew-cut) appearance on x-ray

β-thalassemia, sickle cell anemia (marrow expansion)

146

Lab/diagnostic finding: "Honeycomb lung" on x-ray

Interstitial fibrosis

147

Lab/diagnostic finding: "Lumpy-bumpy" appearance of glomeruli on immunofluorescence

Poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (immune complex deposition of IgG and C3b)

148

Lab/diagnostic finding: "Nutmeg" appearance of liver

Chronic passive congestion of liver due to right heart failure

149

Lab/diagnostic finding: "Onion-skin" periosteal reaction

Ewing's sarcoma (malignant round-cell tumor)

150

Lab/diagnostic finding: "Soap bubble" in femur or tibia on x-ray

Giant cell tumor of bone (generally benign)

151

Lab/diagnostic finding: "Spikes" on basement membrane, "dome-like" subepithelial deposits

Membranous glomerulonephritis (may progress to nephrotic syndrome)

152

Lab/diagnostic finding: "Tennis-racket"-shaped cytoplasmic organelles (EM) in Langerhans cells

Birbeck granules (histiocytosis X: eosinophilic granuloma)

153

Lab/diagnostic finding: "Thumb sign" on lateral x-ray

Epiglottitis (Haemophilus influenzae)

154

Lab/diagnostic finding: "Tram-track" appearance of LM

Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis

155

Lab/diagnostic finding: "Wire loop" glomerular appearance on LM

Lupus nephropathy

156

Lab/diagnostic finding: Anti-glomerular basement membrane antibodies

Goodpasture's syndrome (glomerulonephritis and hemoptysis)

157

Lab/diagnostic finding: Anti-IgG antibodies

Rheumatoid arthritis (systemic inflammation, joint pannus, boutonnière deformity)

158

Lab/diagnostic finding: Anti-topoisomerase antibodies

Diffuse systemic scleroderma

159

Lab/diagnostic finding: Anti-transglutaminase / antigliadin / anti-endomysial antibodies

Celiac disease (diarrhea, distention, weight loss)

160

Lab/diagnostic finding: Anticentromere antibodies

Scleroderma (CREST)

161

Lab/diagnostic finding: Antidesmoglein (epithelial) antibodies

Pemphigus vulgaris (blistering)

162

Lab/diagnostic finding: Antihistone antibodies

Drug-induced SLE (hydralazine, isoniazid, phenytoin, procainamide)

163

Lab/diagnostic finding: Antimitochondrial antibodies (AMAs)

1° biliary cirrhosis (female, cholestasis, portal hypertension)

164

Lab/diagnostic finding: Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCAs)

Vasculitis (c-ANCA: Wegener's; p-ANCA: microscopic polyangiitis, Churg-Strauss syndrome)

165

Lab/diagnostic finding: Antinuclear antibodies (ANAs: anti-Smith and anti-dsDNA)

SLE (type III hypersensitivity)

166

Lab/diagnostic finding: Antiplatelet antibodies

Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) (bleed diathesis)

167

Lab/diagnostic finding: Azurophilic granular needles in leukemic blasts

Auer rods (acute myelogenous leukemia; especially the promyelocytic type)

168

Lab/diagnostic finding: Basophilic nuclear remnants in RBCs

Howell-Jolly bodies (due to splenectomy or nonfunctional spleen)

169

Lab/diagnostic finding: Basophilic stippling of RBCs

Lead poisoning or sideroblastic anemia

170

Lab/diagnostic finding: Bloody tap on LP

Subarachnoid hemorrhage

171

Lab/diagnostic finding: Branching gram-positive rods with sulfur granules

Actinomyces israelii

172

Lab/diagnostic finding: Bronchogenic apical lung tumor

Pancoast's tumor (can compress sympathetic ganglion and cause Horner's syndrome)

173

Lab/diagnostic finding: Cardiomegaly with apical atrophy

Chaga's disease (Tripanosoma cruzi)

174

Lab/diagnostic finding: Cellular crescents in Bowman's capsule

Rapidly progressive crescentic glomerulonephritis

175

Lab/diagnostic finding: Circular grouping of dark tumor cells surrounding pale neurofibrils

Horner Wright rosettes (neuroblastoma, medulloblastoma, retinoblastoma)

176

Lab/diagnostic finding: Colonies of mucoid Pseudomonas in lungs

Cystic fibrosis (CFTR mutation in Caucasians resulting in fat-soluble vitamin deficiency and mucous plugs)

177

Lab/diagnostic finding: Degeneration of dorsal column nerves

Tabes dorsalis (3° syphilis)

178

Lab/diagnostic finding: Depigmentation of neurons in substantia nigra

Parkinson's disease (basal ganglia disorder: rigidity, resting tremor, bradykinesia)

179

Lab/diagnostic finding: Desquamated epithelium casts in sputum

Curschmann's spirals (bronchial asthma; can result in whorled mucous plugs)

180

Lab/diagnostic finding: Disarrayed granulosa cells in eosinophilic fluid

Call-Exner bodies (granulosa-theca cell tumor of the ovary)

181

Lab/diagnostic finding: Dysplastic squamous cervical cells with nuclear enlargement and hyperchromasia

Koilocytes (HPV: predisposes to cervical cancer)

182

Lab/diagnostic finding: Enlarged cells with intranuclear inclusion bodies

“Owl's-eye" appearance of CMV

183

Lab/diagnostic finding: Enlarged thyroid cells with ground-glass nuclei

"Orphan Annie" eye nuclei (papillary carcinoma of the thyroid)

184

Lab/diagnostic finding: Eosinophilic cytoplasmic inclusion in liver cell

Mallory bodies (alcoholic liver disease)

185

Lab/diagnostic finding: Eosinophilic cytoplasmic inclusion in nerve cell

Lewy body (Parkinson's disease)

186

Lab/diagnostic finding: Eosinophilic globule in liver

Councilman body (toxic or viral hepatitis, often yellow fever)

187

Lab/diagnostic finding: Eosinophilic inclusions bodies in cytoplasm of hippocampal nerve cells

Rabies virus (Lyssavirus)

188

Lab/diagnostic finding: Extracellular amyloid deposition in gray matter of brain

Senile plaques (Alzheimer's disease)

189

Lab/diagnostic finding: Giant B cells with bilobed nuclei with prominent inclusions ("owl's eye")

Reed-Sternberg cells (Hodgkin's lymphoma)

190

Lab/diagnostic finding: Glomerulus-like structure surrounding vessel in germ cells

Schiller-Duval bodies (yolk sac tumor)

191

Lab/diagnostic finding: hCG elevated

Choriocarcinoma, hydatidiform mole (occurs with and without embryo)

192

Lab/diagnostic finding: Heart nodules (inflammatory)

Aschoff bodies (rheumatic fever)

193

Lab/diagnostic finding: Heterophile antibodies

Infectious mononucleosis (EBV)

194

Lab/diagnostic finding: Hexagonal, double-pointed, needle-like crystals in bronchial secretions

Bronchial asthma (Charcot-Leyden crystals: eosinophilic granules)

195

Lab/diagnostic finding: High level of D-dimers

DVT, pulmonary embolism, DIC

196

Lab/diagnostic finding: Hilar lymphadenopathy, peripheral granulomatous lesion in middle or lower lung lobes (can calcify)

Ghon complex (1°TB: Mycobacterium bacilli)

197

Lab/diagnostic finding: Hypersegmented neutrophils

Megaloblastic anemia (B12, folate deficiency)

198

Lab/diagnostic finding: Hypochomic, microcytic anemia

Iron deficiency anemia, lead poisoning, thalassemia (HbF sometimes present)

199

Lab/diagnostic finding: Increased uric acid levels

Gout, Lesch-Nyhan syndrome, tumor lysis syndrome, loop and thiazide diuretics

200

Lab/diagnostic finding: Increased α-fetoprotein in amniotic fluid / maternal serum

Anencephaly, spina bifida (neural tube defects)

201

Lab/diagnostic finding: Intranuclear eosinophilic droplet-like bodies

Cowdry type A bodies (HSV or CMV)

202

Lab/diagnostic finding: Iron-containing nodules in alveolar septum

Ferruginous bodies (asbestosis: ↑ chance of mesothelioma)

203

Lab/diagnostic finding: Large lysosomal vesicles in phagocytes, immunodeficiency

Chédiak-Higashi disease (congenital failure of phagolysosome formation)

204

Lab/diagnostic finding: Low serum ceruloplasmin

Wilson's disease (hepatolenticular degeneration)

205

Lab/diagnostic finding: Lytic ("hole-punched") bone lesions on x-ray

Multiple myeloma

206

Lab/diagnostic finding: Mammary gland ("blue-domed") cyst

Fibrocystic change of the breast

207

Lab/diagnostic finding: Monoclonal antibody spike

1. Multiple myeloma (called the M protein; usually IgG or IgA) 2. Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS; normal consequence of aging) 3. Waldenström's (M protein = IgM) macroglobulinemia 4. Primary amyloidosis

208

Lab/diagnostic finding: Monoclonal globulin protein in blood/urine

Bence Jones proteins (multiple myeloma [kappa or lambda Ig light chains in urine]), Waldenström's macroglobunemia (IgM)

209

Lab/diagnostic finding: Mucin-filled cell with peripheral nucleus

Signet ring (gastric carcinoma)

210

Lab/diagnostic finding: Narrowing of bowel lumen on barium radiograph

"String sign" (Crohn's disease)

211

Lab/diagnostic finding: Needle-shaped, negatively birefringent crystals

Gout (hyperuricemia)

212

Lab/diagnostic finding: Nodular hyaline deposits in glomeruli

Kimmelstiel-Wilson nodules (diabetic nephropathy)

213

Lab/diagnostic finding: Periosteum raised from bone, creating triangular area

Codman's triangle on x-ray (osteosarcoma, Ewing's sarcoma, pyogenic osteomyelitis)

214

Lab/diagnostic finding: Podocyte fusion on EM

Minimal change disease (child with nephrotic syndrome)

215

Lab/diagnostic finding: Polished, "ivory-like" appearance of bone at cartilage erosion

Eburnation (osteoarthritis resulting in bony sclerosis)

216

Lab/diagnostic finding: Protein aggregates in neurons from hyperphosphorylation of protein tau

Neurofibrillary tangles (Alzheimer's disease and CJD)

217

Lab/diagnostic finding: Pseudopalisading tumor cells on brain biopsy

Glioblastoma multiforme

218

Lab/diagnostic finding: RBC casts in urine

Acute glomerulonephritis

219

Lab/diagnostic finding: Rectangular, crystal-like, cytoplasmic inclusions in Leydig cells

Reinke crystals (Leydig cell tumor)

220

Lab/diagnostic finding: Renal epithelial casts in urine

Acute toxic/viral nephrosis

221

Lab/diagnostic finding: Rhomboid crystals, positively birefringent

Pseudogout (calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate)

222

Lab/diagnostic finding: Rib notching

Coarctation of the aorta

223

Lab/diagnostic finding: Sheet's of medium-sized lymphoid cells ("starry sky" appearance on histology)

Burkitt's lymphoma (t[8:14] c-myc activation, associated with EBV)

224

Lab/diagnostic finding: Silver-staining spherical aggregation of tau proteins in neurons

Pick bodies (Pick's disease; progressive dementia, similar to Alzheimer's)

225

Lab/diagnostic finding: Stacks of red blood cells

Rouleaux formation (high ESR, multiple myeloma)

226

Lab/diagnostic finding: Stippled vaginal epithelial cells

"Clue cells" (Gardnerella vaginalis)

227

Lab/diagnostic finding: Thrombi made of white/red layers

Lines of Zahn (arterial thrombus, layers of platelets/RBCs)

228

Lab/diagnostic finding: Thyroid-like appearance of kidney

Chronic bacterial pyelonephritis

229

Lab/diagnostic finding: Triglyceride accumulation in liver cell vacuoles

Fatty liver disease (alcoholic or metabolic syndrome)

230

Lab/diagnostic finding: WBCs that look "smudged"

CLL (almost always B cell; affects the elderly)

231

Lab/diagnostic finding: Yellow CSF

Xanthochromia (subarachnoid hemorrhage)