One Word_Pharmacology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in One Word_Pharmacology Deck (185):
1

Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors

Alzheimer's drug - Donepezil

2

Alzheimer's drug - Memantine

NMDA receptor antagonist

3

Antibiotic to avoid in pregnancy - Aminoglycosides

Ototoxicity

4

Antibiotic to avoid in pregnancy - Chloramphenicol

"gray baby"

5

Antibiotic to avoid in pregnancy - Fluoroquinolones

Cartilage damage

6

Antibiotic to avoid in pregnancy - Griseofulvin (antifungal)

Teratogenic

7

Antibiotic to avoid in pregnancy - Metronidazole

Mutagenesis

8

Antibiotic to avoid in pregnancy - Ribavirin (antiviral)

Teratogenic

9

Antibiotic to avoid in pregnancy - Sulfonamides

Kernicterus

10

Antibiotic to avoid in pregnancy - Tetracyclines

Discolored teeth, inhibition of bone growth

11

Drug class - Acarbose

α-glucosidase inhibitors

12

Drug class - Amiloride

K+ sparing diuretics

13

Drug class - Amiodarone

Class III antiarrhythmics

14

Drug class - Bretylium

Class III antiarrhythmics

15

Drug class - Chlorpropamide

First generation sulfonylureas

16

Drug class - Cholestyramine

Bile acid resins

17

Drug class - Colesevelam

Bile acid resins

18

Drug class - Colestipol

Bile acid resins

19

Drug class - Diltiazem

Class IV antiarrhythmics

20

Drug class - Disopyramide

Class IA antiarrhythmics

21

Drug class - Dofetilide

Class III antiarrhythmics

22

Drug class - Eplerenone

K+ sparing diuretics

23

Drug class - Exenatide

GLP-1 analog (for diabetes)

24

Drug class - Ezetimibe

Cholesterol absorption blockers

25

Drug class - Flecainide

Class IC antiarrhythmics

26

Drug class - Glimepiride

Second generation sulfonylureas

27

Drug class - Glipizide

Second generation sulfonylureas

28

Drug class - Glyburide

Second generation sulfonylureas

29

Drug class - Ibutilide

Class III antiarrhythmics

30

Drug class - Ketorolac

NSAIDs

31

Drug class - Lidocaine

Class IB antiarrhythmics

32

Drug class - Meperidine

Opioids

33

Drug class - Metformin

Biguanides (for diabetes)

34

Drug class - Mexiletine

Class IB antiarrhythmics

35

Drug class - Miglitol

α-glucosidase inhibitors

36

Drug class - Naproxen

NSAIDs

37

Drug class - Pioglitazone

Glitazones/thiazolidinediones (for diabetes)

38

Drug class - Pirenzepine

GI muscarinic antagonists

39

Drug class - Pramlintide

Mimetics (for diabetes)

40

Drug class - Procainamide

Class IA antiarrhythmics

41

Drug class - Propantheline

GI muscarinic antagonists

42

Drug class - Quinidine

Class IA antiarrhythmics

43

Drug class - Rosiglitazone

Glitazones/thiazolidinediones (for diabetes)

44

Drug class - Sotalol

Class III antiarrhythmics

45

Drug class - Spironolactone

K+ sparing diuretics

46

Drug class - Tocainide

Class IB antiarrhythmics

47

Drug class - Tolbutamide

First generation sulfonylureas

48

Drug class - Triamterene

K+ sparing diuretics

49

Drug class - Verapamil

Class IV antiarrhythmics

50

Drug use - Challenge test for diagnosis of asthma

Methacholine

51

Drug use - Motion sickness

Scopolamine

52

Drug use - Nasal decongestion

Ephedrine

53

Drug use - Reduce premature uterine contractions

Ritodrine

54

Drug use - Reduce urgency in mild cystitis and reduce bladder spasms

Oxybutynin, glycopyrrolate

55

Drug use - Urinary incontinence

Ephedrine

56

Mechanism - Biphosphonates (-dronate)

Inhibit osteoclastic activity; reduce both formation and resorption of hydroxyapatite

57

Mechanism - Butorphanol

Partial agonist at opioid mu receptors, agonist at kappa receptors

58

Mechanism - Clopidogrel

Inhibit platelet aggregation by irreversibly blocking ADP receptors, preventing glycoprotein IIb/IIIa from binding fibrinogen

59

Mechanism - Methimazole

Inhibit organification of iodide and coupling the thyroid hormone synthesis

60

Mechanism - Minoxidil

K+ channel opener - hyperpolarizes and relaxes vascular smooth muscle, used to treat severe hypertension

61

Mechanism - Sucralfate

Bind to ulcer base, providing physical protection, and allow HCO3- secretion to reestablish pH gradient in the mucous layer

62

Mechanism - Ticlopidine

Inhibit platelet aggregation by irreversibly blocking ADP receptors, preventing glycoprotein IIb/IIIa from binding fibrinogen. May cause neutropenia.

63

Prophylaxis - Endocarditis with surgical or dental procedures

Penicillins

64

Prophylaxis - Gonorrhea

Ceftriaxone

65

Prophylaxis - History of recurrent UTIs

TMP-SMX

66

Prophylaxis - Meningococcal infection

Rifampin (drug of choice), minocycline

67

Prophylaxis - Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare

Azithromycin

68

Prophylaxis - Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia

TMP-SMX (drug of choice), aerosolized pentamidine

69

Prophylaxis - Syphilis

Benzathine penicillin G

70

Specific antidotes - Acetaminophen

N-acetycysteine

71

Specific antidotes - Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, organophosphates

Atropine, pralidoxime

72

Specific antidotes - Amphetamines

NH4Cl (acidify urine)

73

Specific antidotes - Antimuscarinic, anticholinergic agents

Physostigmine salicylate

74

Specific antidotes - Benzodiazepines

Flumazenil

75

Specific antidotes - Carbon monoxide

100% O2, hyperbaric O2

76

Specific antidotes - Copper, arsenic, gold

Penicillamine

77

Specific antidotes - Cyanide

Nitrite, hydroxocobalamin, thiosulfate

78

Specific antidotes - Digitalis

Stop dig, normalize K+, lidocaine, anti-dig Fab fragments, Mg2+

79

Specific antidotes - Heparin

Protamine (sulfate)

80

Specific antidotes - Iron

Deferoxamine

81

Specific antidotes - Lead

CaEDTA, dimercaprol, succimer, penicillamine

82

Specific antidotes - Mercury, arsenic, gold

Dimercaprol (BAL), succimer

83

Specific antidotes - Methanol, ethylene glycol (antifreeze)

Ethanol, dialysis, fomepizole

84

Specific antidotes - Methemoglobin

Methylene blue, vitamin C

85

Specific antidotes - Opioids

Naloxone/naltrexone

86

Specific antidotes - Salicylates

NaHCO3 (alkalinize urine), dialysis

87

Specific antidotes - TCAs

NaHCO3 (plasma alkalinization)

88

Specific antidotes - Theophylline

β-blocker

89

Specific antidotes - tPA, streptokinase

Aminocarproic acid

90

Specific antidotes - Warfarin

Vitamin K, fresh frozen plasma

91

Specific antidotes - β-blockers

Glucagon

92

Target - Abciximab

Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa

93

Target - Adalimumab

TNF-α

94

Target - Daclizumab

IL-2 receptor

95

Target - Digoxin Immune Fab

Digoxin

96

Target - Infliximab

TNF-α

97

Target - Muromonab-CD3 (OKT3)

CD3

98

Target - Rituximab

CD20

99

Target - Trastuzumab (Herceptin)

erb-B2

100

Treatment - Acromegaly

Pituitary adenoma resection followed by octreotide administration

101

Treatment - Actinomyces

Penicillin

102

Treatment - acute ventricular arrhythmias (especially post-MI)

Class IB antiarrhythmics

103

Treatment - Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

Riluzole - treatment modestly lengthens survival by decreasing presynaptic glutamate release

104

Treatment - Aplastic anemia

Withdrawal of offending agent, immunosuppressive regimens (antithymocyte globulin, cyclosporine), allogeneic bone marrow transplantation, RBC and platelet transfusion, G-CSF or GM-CSF

105

Treatment - Babesia

Quinine, clindamycin

106

Treatment - Benign prostatic hyperplasia

α1-antagonists (terazosin, tamsulosin); finasteride

107

Treatment - C. difficile (pseudomembranous colitis)

Metronidazole

108

Treatment - Candida albicans

Nystatin for superficial infection; amphotericin B for serious systemic infection

109

Treatment - Carcinoid syndrome

Octreotide

110

Treatment - Chlamydiae

Azithromycin or doxycycline

111

Treatment - Cluster headache

Sumatriptan, hyperbaric oxygen

112

Treatment - Crohn's disease

Corticosteroids, infliximab

113

Treatment - Cryptosoridium

Prevention (by filtering city water supplies); no treatment

114

Treatment - Cystic fibrosis

N-acetylcysteine to loosen mucous plugs (cleaves disulfide bonds within mucous glycoproteins)

115

Treatment - Dermatomyositis

Steroids

116

Treatment - Dextromethrophan

Opioids

117

Treatment - Diabetes insipidus

Adequate fluid intake. For central DI - intranasal desmopressin (ADH analog). For nephrogenic DI - hydrochlorothiazide, indomethacin, or amiloride

118

Treatment - Diabetic ketoacidosis

Fluids, insulin, and K+ (to replete intracellular stores); glucose if necessary to prevent hypoglycemia

119

Treatment - Diarrhea (Opioid)

Loperamide and diphenoxylate

120

Treatment - Digitalis-induced arrhythmias

Class IB antiarrhythmics

121

Treatment - ectopic supraventricular and ventricular tachycardia

Class IA antiarrhythmics

122

Treatment - Entamoeba histolytica

Metronidazole and iodoquinol

123

Treatment - Essential/postural tremor

β-blockers

124

Treatment - Gardia lamblia

Metronidazole

125

Treatment - Gardnerella vaginalis

Metronidazole

126

Treatment - Gout

Acute - 1. Colchicine 2. NSAIDs (e.g., indomethacin) Chronic - Allopurinol, uricosurics (e.g., probenecid)

127

Treatment - Guillain-Barré syndrome

Respiratory support is critical until recovery. Additional treatment: plasmapheresis, IV immune globulins.

128

Treatment - Haemophilus influenzae

Treat meningitis with ceftriaxone. Rifampin prophylaxis in close contacts.

129

Treatment - Helicobacter pylori

Treat with triple therapy (1) metronidazole, bismuth (Pepto-Bismol), and either tetracycline or amoxicillin (2) (more costly) metronidazole, omeprazole, and clarithromycin (3) PPI, clarithromycin, amoxicillin/metronidazole

130

Treatment - Hereditary spherocytosis

Splenectomy

131

Treatment - Hydatidiform mole

Dilatation and curettage and methotrexate

132

Treatment - Hyperammonemia

①limit protein in diet ②Benzoate or phenylbutyrate (both of which bind amino acid and lead to excretion) may be given to ↓ ammonia levels ③Lactulose.

133

Treatment - Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

β-blocker or non-dihydrooyridine calcium channel blocker (e.g., verapamil)

134

Treatment - In prevention of nodal arrhythmias

Class IV antiarrhythmics

135

Treatment - Ischemic stroke

tPA within 3 hours

136

Treatment - Lactase deficiency

avoid dairy products or add lactase pills to diet

137

Treatment - Lead poisoning

Dimercaprol and EDTA 1st line of treatment. Succimer for kids.

138

Treatment - Legionella pneumophila

Erythromycin

139

Treatment - Leishmania donovani

Sodium stibogluconate, meglumine antimonate, pentamidine, amphotericin B

140

Treatment - Lyme disease (Borrelia burgdorferi)

Doxycycline, ceftriaxone

141

Treatment - M. avium-intracellulare

Prophylaxis - Azithromycin Treatment - Azithromycin, rifampin, ethambutol, streptomycin

142

Treatment - Migraine headache

Propranolol; NSAIDs; sumatriptan for acute migraines

143

Treatment - MRSA

Vancomycin

144

Treatment - Multiple sclerosis

β-interferon or immunosuppressant therapy. Symptomatic treatment for neurogenic bladder, spasticity, pain.

145

Treatment - Mycobacterium leprae

Long-term oral dapsone; toxicity is hemolysis and methemoglobinemia. Alternate treatments include rifampin and combination of clofazimine and dapsone.

146

Treatment - Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Prophylaxis - Isoniazid Treatment - Rifampin, Isoniazid, Pyrazinamide, Ethambutol (RIPE for treatment)

147

Treatment - Mycoplasma pneumoniae

Tetracycline or erythromycin

148

Treatment - Naegleria fowleri

Amphotericin has been effective for a few survivors

149

Treatment - Neisseria Meningococci (Prophylaxis)

Rifampin

150

Treatment - Nocardia

Sulfa

151

Treatment - Osteoporosis

Estrogen (SERMs) and/or calcitonin; biphophonates or pulsatile PTH for severe cases. Glucocorticoids are contraindicated.

152

Treatment - Pain, cough suppression (Opioid)

Dextromethorphan

153

Treatment - Phenylketonuria

↓ phenylalanie (contained in aspartame, e.g., NutraSweet) and ↑ tyrosine in diet

154

Treatment - Plasmodium

Begin with chloroquine; if resistant, use mefloquine Add primaquine for dormant forms in liver (hypnozoite)

155

Treatment - Pneumocystis jiroveci (formerly carinii)

TMP-SMX, pentamidine, dapsone. Start prophylaxis when CD4 drops < 200 cells/mL in HIV patients.

156

Treatment - Polyarteritis nodosa

Corticosteroids, cyclophosphamide

157

Treatment - Polycyctic ovarian syndrome

Weight loss, OCPs, gonadotropin analogs, clomiphene, spironolactone (to treat hirsutism), or surgery

158

Treatment - Polymyalgia rheumatica

Steroids

159

Treatment - Polymyositis

Steroids

160

Treatment - Pregnancy-induced hypertension (preeclampsia-eclampsia)

IV magnesium sulfate and diazepam

161

Treatment - Prolactinomas

Bromocriptine or cabergoline (dopamine agonists)

162

Treatment - Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Aminoglycoside plus extended-spectrum penicillin (e.g., piperacillin, ticarcillin)

163

Treatment - Pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency

↑ intake of ketogenic nutrients (e.g., high fat content or ↑ lysine and leucine)

164

Treatment - Reentrant

Class IA antiarrhythmics

165

Treatment - Rickettsiae

Doxycycline

166

Treatment - SIADH

Demeclocycline or H2O restriction

167

Treatment - Sickle cell anemia

Hydroxyurea (↑ HbF) and bone marrow transplantation

168

Treatment - Sideroblastic anemia

Pyridoxine B6

169

Treatment - Slow ventricular rate during atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter

Class II antiarrhythmics

170

Treatment - Sporothrix schenckii

Itraconazole or potassium iodide

171

Treatment - Syphilis (Treponema pallidum)

Penicillin G

172

Treatment - Systemic mycoses (Histoplasmosis, Blastomycosis, Coccidioidomycosis, Paracoccidiomycosis)

Fluconazole or ketonazole for local infection; amphotericin B for systemic infection

173

Treatment - Tinea pedis (foot), Tinea cruris (groin), Tinea corporis (ringworm on body), Tinea capitis (head, scalp) - Microsporum, Trichophyton, and Epidermophyton

Topical azoles

174

Treatment - Tinea versicolor (Malassezia furfur)

Topical miconazole, selenium sulfide (Selsun)

175

Treatment - Torsades de pointes

Mg2+

176

Treatment - Toxoplasma gondii

Sulfadiazine + pyrimethamine

177

Treatment - Trichomonas vaginalis

Metronidazole

178

Treatment - Trypanosoma brucei (T. gambiense, T. rhodesiense)

Suramin for blood-borne disease or melarsoprol for CNS penetration

179

Treatment - Trypanosoma cruzi

Nifurtimox

180

Treatment - Ulcerative colitis

ASA preparations (sulfasalazine), 6-mercaptopurine, infliximab, colectomy

181

Treatment - Vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage

Calcium channel blockers

182

Treatment - VRE

Linezolid and streptogramins (quinupristin/dalfopristin)

183

Treatment - Wegener's granulomatosis

Cyclophosphamide and corticosteroids

184

Weak acids (3)

Phenobarbital, methotrexate, aspirin. Treat overdose with bicarbonate.

185

Weak bases (1)

Amphetamines. Treat overdose with ammonium chloride, vitamin C, cranberry juice.