One Word_Pathology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in One Word_Pathology Deck (97):
1

Amyloidosis - Alzheimer's disease

Protein: β-amyloid Derived from amyloid precursor protein (APP)

2

Amyloidosis - Diabetes mellitus type 2

Protein: AE Derived from amylin

3

Amyloidosis - Dialysis-associated

Protein: β2-microglobulin Derived from MHC class I proteins

4

Amyloidosis - Medullary carcinoma of the thyroid

Protein: A-CAL Derived from calcitonin

5

Amyloidosis - Primary

Protein: AL Derived from Ig light chains (multiple myeloma)

6

Amyloidosis - Secondary

Protein: AA Derived from serum amyloid-associated (SAA) protein (chronic inflammatory disease)

7

Amyloidosis - Senile cardiac

Protein: AF Derived from transthyretin

8

Chemical carcinogens - Aflatoxins (produced by Aspergillus)

Liver (hepatocellular carcinoma)

9

Chemical carcinogens - Alkylating agents

Blood (leukemia)

10

Chemical carcinogens - Arsenic

Skin (squamous cell carcinoma), liver (angiosarcoma)

11

Chemical carcinogens - Asbestos

Lung (mesothelioma and bronchogenic carcinoma)

12

Chemical carcinogens - CCl4

Liver (centrilobular necrosis, fatty change)

13

Chemical carcinogens - Cigarette smoke

Larynx (squamous cell carcinoma), lung (squamous cell and small cell carcinomas), kidney (renal cell carcinoma), bladder (transitional cell carcinoma)

14

Chemical carcinogens - Naphthalene (aniline) dyes

Bladder (transitional cell carcinoma)

15

Chemical carcinogens - Nitrosamines (e.g., smoked foods)

Esophagus, stomach

16

Chemical carcinogens - Vinyl chloride

Liver (angiosarcoma)

17

Definitions - Anaplasia

abnormal cells lacking differentiation; like primitive cells of same tissue, often equated with undifferentiated malignant neoplasms. Little or no resemblance to tissue of origin

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Definitions - Desmoplasia

fibrous tissue formation in response to neoplasm

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Definitions - Dysplasia

abnormal growth with loss of cellular orientation, shape, and size in comparison to normal tissue maturation; commonly preneoplastic.

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Definitions - Hyperplasia

↑ in number of cells

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Definitions - Metaplasia

one adult cell type is replaced by another. Often 2° to irritation and/or environmental exposure (e.g., squamous metaplasia in trachea and bronchi of smokers)

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Definitions - Neoplasia

a clonal proliferation of cells that is uncontrolled and excessive

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Metastasis to the bone

Lung = Lytic Prostate = Blastic Breast = Both lytic and blastic

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Metastasis to the brain

Typically multiple well-circumscribed tumors at gray/white matter junction

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Neoplasm association - Acanthosis nigricans (hyperpigmentation and epidermal thickening)

Visceral malignancy (stomach, lung, breast, uterus)

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Neoplasm association - Actinic keratosis

Squamous cell carcinoma of skin

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Neoplasm association - AIDS

Aggressive malignant lymphomas (non-Hodgkin's) and Kaposi's sarcoma

28

Neoplasm association - Albinism

Melanoma, basal cell carcinoma, and especially squamous cell carcinomas of skin

29

Neoplasm association - Autoimmune diseases (e.g., Hashimoto's thyroiditis, myasthenia gravis)

Lymphoma

30

Neoplasm association - Barrett's esophagus (chronic GI reflux)

Esophageal adenocarcinoma

31

Neoplasm association - Chronic atrophic gastritis

Gastric adenocarcinoma

32

Neoplasm association - Cirrhosis (alcoholic, hepatitis B or C)

Hepatocellular carcinoma

33

Neoplasm association - Down syndrome

ALL, AML

34

Neoplasm association - Dysplastic nevus

Malignant melanoma

35

Neoplasm association - Immunodeficiency states

Malignant lymphomas

36

Neoplasm association - Myasthenia gravis

Thymoma

37

Neoplasm association - Paget's disease of the bone

2° osteosarcoma and fibrosarcoma

38

Neoplasm association - Pernicious gastritis

Gastric adenocarcinoma

39

Neoplasm association - Plummer-Vinson syndrome (atrophic glossitis, esophageal webs, anemia; all due to iron deficiency)

Squamous cell carcinoma of esophagus

40

Neoplasm association - Postsurgical gastric remnants

Gastric adenocarcinoma

41

Neoplasm association - Radiation exposure

Sarcoma, papillary thyroid cancer

42

Neoplasm association - Tuberous sclerosis (facial angiofibroma, seizures, mental retardation)

Astrocytoma, angiomyolipoma, and cardiac rhabdomyoma

43

Neoplasm association - Ulcerative colitis

Colonic adenocarcinoma

44

Neoplasm association - Xeroderma pigmentosum

Melanoma, basal cell carcinoma, and especially squamous cell carcinomas of skin

45

Oncogenes - abl

Associated tumor: CML Gene product: Tyrosine kinase

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Oncogenes - bcl-2

Associated tumor: Follicular and undifferentiated lymphomas (inhibits apoptosis) Gene product: Anti-apoptotic molecule

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Oncogenes - c-kit

Associated tumor: Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) Gene product: Cytokine receptor

48

Oncogenes - c-myc

Associated tumor: Burkitt's lymphoma Gene product: Transcription factor

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Oncogenes - erb-B2

Associated tumor: Breast, ovarian, and gastric carcinomas Gene product: Tyrosine kinase

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Oncogenes - L-myc

Associated tumor: Lung cancer Gene product: Transcription factor

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Oncogenes - N-myc

Associated tumor: Neuroblastoma Gene product: Transcription factor

52

Oncogenes - ras

Associated tumor: Colon carcinoma Gene product: GTPase

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Oncogenes - ret

Associated tumor: Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) type IIA and IIB Gene product: Tyrosine kinase

54

Oncogenic microbes - EBV

Burkitt's lymphoma, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, Hodgkin's lymphoma

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Oncogenic microbes - H. pylori

Gastric adenocarcinoma and lymphoma

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Oncogenic microbes - HBV

Hepatocellular carcinoma

57

Oncogenic microbes - HCV

Hepatocellular carcinoma

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Oncogenic microbes - HHV-8 (Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus)

Kaposi's sarcoma, body cavity fluid B-cell lymphoma

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Oncogenic microbes - HIV

Primary CNS lymphoma

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Oncogenic microbes - HPV

Cervical carcinoma (16, 18), penile/anal carcinoma

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Oncogenic microbes - HTLV-1

Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma

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Oncogenic microbes - Schistosoma haematobium

Squamous cell carcinoma of transitional epithelium, e.g., bladder

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Paraneoplastic effects - Leukemias and lymphomas

Hyperuricemia due to excess nucleic acid turnover (i.e., cytotoxic therapy)

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Paraneoplastic effects - Renal cell carcinoma, hemangioblastoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, pheochromocytoma

Erythropoietin

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Paraneoplastic effects - Small cell lung carcinoma

ACTH or ACTH-like peptide

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Paraneoplastic effects - Small cell lung carcinoma and intracranial neoplasms

ADH

67

Paraneoplastic effects - Squamous cell lung carcinoma, renal cell carcinoma, and breast carcinoma

PTH-related peptide, TGF-β, TNF, IL-1

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Paraneoplastic effects - Thymoma, small cell lung carcinoma

Antibodies against presynaptic Ca2+ channels at neuromuscular junction

69

Psammoma bodies

Laminated, concentric, calcific spherules seen in: 1. Papillary adenocarcinoma of thyroid 2. Serous papillary cystadenocarcinoma of ovary 3. Meningioma 4. Malignant mesothelioma

70

Symptoms - Acute iron poisoning

gastric bleeding

71

Symptoms - Chronic iron poisoning

metabolic acidosis, scarring leading to GI obstruction

72

Tumor markers - Alkaline phosphatase

Metastases to bone, obstructive biliary disease, Paget's disease of the bone

73

Tumor markers - Bombesin

Neuroblastoma, lung and gastric cancer

74

Tumor markers - CA-125

Ovarian, malignant epithelial tumors

75

Tumor markers - CA-19-9

Pancreatic adenocarcinoma

76

Tumor markers - Calcitonin

Thyroid medullary carcinoma

77

Tumor markers - CEA

Carcinoembryonic antigen. Very nonspecific but produced by ~ 70% of colorectal and pancreatic cancers; also produced by gastric, breast, and thyroid medullary carcinomas

78

Tumor markers - Prostatic acid phosphatase

Prostate carcinoma

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Tumor markers - PSA

Prostate-specific antigen. Used to screen for prostate carcinoma. Can also be elevated in BPH and prostatitis

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Tumor markers - S-100

Melanoma, neural tumors, astrocytomas

81

Tumor markers - TRAP

Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase. Hairy cell leukemia - a B-cell neoplasm

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Tumor markers - α-fetoprotein

Normally made by fetus. Hepatocellular carcinomas. Nonseminomatous germ cell tumors of the testis (e.g., yolk sac tumor)

83

Tumor markers - β-hCG

Hydatidiform moles, choriocarcinomas, and gestational trophoblastic tumors

84

Tumor suppressor genes - APC

Chromosome: 5q Associated tumor: Colorectal cancer (associated with FAP)

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Tumor suppressor genes - BRCA1

Chromosome: 17q Associated tumor: Breast and ovarian cancer Gene product: DNA repair protein

86

Tumor suppressor genes - BRCA2

Chromosome: 13q Associated tumor: Breast cancer Gene product: DNA repair protein

87

Tumor suppressor genes - DCC

Chromosome: 18q Associated tumor: Colon cancer

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Tumor suppressor genes - DPC

Chromosome: 18q Associated tumor: Pancreatic cancer

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Tumor suppressor genes - NF1

Chromosome: 17q Associated tumor: Neurofibromatosis type 1

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Tumor suppressor genes - NF2

Chromosome: 22q Associated tumor: Neurofibromatosis type 2

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Tumor suppressor genes - p16

Chromosome: 9p Associated tumor: Melanoma

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Tumor suppressor genes - p53

Chromosome: 17p Associated tumor: Most human cancers, Li-Fraumeni syndrome Gene product: p53 gene product blocks G1 → S phase of the cell cycle

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Tumor suppressor genes - Rb

Chromosome: 13q Associated tumor: Retinoblastoma, osteosarcoma Gene product: Rb gene products blocks G1 → S phase of the cell cycle

94

Tumor suppressor genes - WT1

Chromosome: 11p Associated tumor: Wilm's tumor

95

↑ Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (5)

Infections; Inflammation (e.g., temporal arteritis); Cancer; Pregnancy; SLE

96

Plummer-Vinson syndrome

Triad of iron deficiency anemia, esophageal webs, and atrophic glossitis.

96

↓ Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (3)

Sickle cell (altered shape); Polycythemia (too many); CHF (unknown)