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Flashcards in Ophthalmology Deck (75)
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1

What are the risk factors for developing cataracts?

UV radiation
Diabetes
Topical or systemic steroids
Smoking
Poor nutrition

2

What is glycation?

The binding of glucose to proteins which results in free radical production

3

Diabetes increases what enzyme that eventually leads to the production of cataracts?

Aldose reductase

4

What is aldose reductase?

It is an enzyme that catalyze one of the steps in the polyol (a sugar alcohol) pathway that is responsible for the formation of fructose from glucose

5

How does diabetes lead to cataracts?

Aldose reductase levels increase with an increase in glucose in tissues that are not insulin sensitive, including the lens, peripheral nerves and glomeruli. Aldose reductase reduces glucose to its alcohol. The lens is relatively impermeable to sugar alcohols. The lens imbibes water, causing an osmotic imbalance. Eventually, increased sodium and decrease potassium levels and decreased final levels lead to cataract formation.

6

What flavonoid can slow the progression of diabetes-related cataracts?

Quercetin. It can inhibit aldos reductase

7

Cataract symptoms

Altered color vision
Fells like you are looking through a piece of clouded glass
Increased sensitivity to bright lights
Increased blurred vision
Need brighter illumination (trouble seeing in the dark)
Diplopia when looking out of one eye
Vision that is brighter in one eye than the other

8

Nutrients that are protective against cataracts

Carnosine
Glutathione
Taurine
Cysteine
Vitamins A, C & E (antioxidants)
Vitamin B2

9

Carnosine is formed by the combination of what 2 amino acids?

Beta alanine
Histidine

10

How does carnosine protect against cataract formation?

It is an antioxidant
It binds metal ions that cause tissue damage
It blocks the aging effects of glycation by competing with proteins for the binding sites they would occupy on sugar molecules

11

How does carnosine protect against dementia?

It inhibits beta amyloid toxicity
It chelates copper and zinc

12

What is the oral dose of carnosine?

1000-2000 mg per day

13

Use caution of supplementing carnosine in what medical conditions?

Liver or kidney disease

14

Carnosine used as eye drops has what effect on DNA?

It prevents DNA strand breaks induced by UV radiation
It enhances DNA repair

15

Treatment for dry eyes

Eye drops
EPA and DHA

16

Diseases that carnosine is used to treat

Alzheimer's
Aging
Atherosclerosis
Brain injury
Cataracts
Diabetes
HTN
Stroke
Wound healing

17

What AAs is glutathione made of?

Glycine
Glutamic acid
Cysteine

18

How does glutathione protect against cataracts?

It functions to protect the structural proteins and enzymes needed for the maintenance of lens flexibility and clarity against free radical production

19

Loss of glutathione in the eye leads to what?

Glycation and thus cataracts

20

At what age does glutathione production in the body start to decrease?

40

21

Why can't glutathione be taken by mouth?

Digestive enzymes break it down. It can be take as NAC

22

What are the nutrients that can increase glutathione?

Vitamin C
ALA
Glutamine
Methionine
SAMe
Whey protein
Vitamin E
Milk thistle

23

What can decrease glutathione

Cigarette smoking
Processed meats containing nitrites or nitrates
Excessive EtOH
Acetaminophen

24

Food sources of glutathione

Asparagus
Avocado
Walnuts
Fish
Meat

25

What is the typical dose range for NAC?

500 - 3000 mg per day

26

Why should NAC be given with vitamin C?

To prevent kidney stone formation

27

If taking NAC for a long duration, what should be supplemented

Zinc and copper. NAC can bind them

28

How does glutathione affect the immune system?

It stimulates IL-1 and IL-2 production

29

What vitamins does glutathione help to recycle?

Vitamins C and E

30

How can glutathione help with weight loss?

It decreases sugar cravings