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Flashcards in Thyroid Deck (77)
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1

Does suppressing TSH cause bone loss?

No

2

Vitamin deficiencies that cause a decreased production of T4

Deficiency of:
Zinc
Copper
Vitamins:
A
B2
B3
B6
C

3

What enzyme is required for the conversion of T4 to T3?

5' deiodinase

4

Name the types of Deiodinase

Type I
Type II
Type III

5

Where is type I deiodinase found and what does it do?

Thyroid, liver and kidney
Plays important role in the production of T3

6

Where is type II deiodinase found and what does it do?

Pituitary, hypothalamus and brown fat
Converts T4 to T3

7

Where is type III deiodinase found and what does it do?

Inner ring of T4 and T3
It catalyzes deiodination of the inner ring of T4 and T3 which inactivates the hormone

8

Things that affect 5' deiodination production

Selenium deficiency
Stress
Cadmium, mercury or lead toxicity
Starvation
Inadequate protein intake
High carbohydrate diet
Elevated cortisol
Chronic illness
Decreased kidney or liver function
Inflammation

9

Nutrient deficiencies that cause poor T4 to T3 conversion

Iodine
Iron
Selenium
Zinc
Vitamins A, B2, B6 and B12

10

Medications that cause poor T4 to T3 conversion

Beta blockers
Birth control pills
Estrogen
Lithium
Phenytoin
Theophylline
Chemotherapy
Glucocorticoids
Interleukin six
Clomipramine

11

Dietary problems that cause poor conversion of T4 to T3

Too many cruciferous vegetables
Low protein diet
Low-fat diet
Low carbohydrate diet
Excessive alcohol
Walnuts
Soy

12

Toxins that cause poor conversion of T4 to T3

Fluoride
Lead
Mercury
Pesticides
Dioxins
PCB
Phthalates

13

Disease conditions that can cause poor conversion of T4 to T3

Aging
Diabetes
Radiation
Stress
Surgery
Inadequate production of DHEA or cortisol

14

Excess nutrients that can cause poor conversion of T4 to T3

Alpha lipoid acid (600 mg or greater)
Copper
Calcium

15

Factors associated with low T3 or increased reverse T3

Increased epinephrine, norepinephrine
Toxic metal exposure
Elevated levels of IL-6, TNF alpha and INF-2
free radicals
aging
Fasting
stress
prolonged illness
diabetes

16

Hormones that will increase T4 to T3 conversion

Growth hormone
Glucagon
Insulin
Glucagon
Melatonin
Estrogen
Testosterone

17

Vitamins minerals and amino acids that will increase conversion of T4 to T3

Selenium
Iodine
Zinc
Vitamin a
Vitamin B2
Vitamin D
Potassium
Iodine
Iron
Tyrosine
Also: high-protein diet and Ashwaganda

18

Lab studies to evaluate thyroid function

TSH
Free T4
Free T3
Reverse T3
Thyroid antibodies:
Anti-thyroglobulin antibody
Antimicrosomal antibodies
Anti-thyroperoxidase antibody (Anti-TPO)

19

Celiac disease is associated with what thyroid disease?

Hashimoto's thyroiditis

20

Patients with hives have a higher frequency of what thyroid disease?

Hashimoto's thyroiditis

21

What causes hair loss?

Hereditary
Iron deficiency
Hypo or hyper thyroidism
Cortisol too high or too low
Metal toxicity
Low progesterone in a woman
Progestins
B vitamin deficiencies, Particularly biotin (B7)

22

What does thyroid binding globulin do and where is it produced?

It stores thyroid hormone.
Is produced in the liver

23

Name three proteins in the blood responsible for carrying thyroid hormones

Thyroid binding globulin
Transthyretin
albumin

24

What can increase thyroid binding globulin?

Estrogen

25

What can thyroid binding globulin be affected by?

Illness, liver disease and medications. They can all decreased levels

26

What amino acid is used as a building block for thyroid hormones?

Tyrosine

27

How to take a basal body temperature

Take the temperature under the arm for 10 minutes. Do before arising. Do it for three days.

28

What toxins can affect thyroid function?

PCBs
Dioxins
DDT
Hexachlorobenzene
Phthalates
Heavy metals (lead, arsenic, mercury)

29

Where is T4 converted to T3?

Liver and kidneys

30

How much stronger is T3 than T4?

Five times stronger