Flashcards in Oral Anatomy Final - Periodontia and Root/Pulp Morphology Deck (40)
What are the three numbering systems of teeth? Describe each.
1. Universal Numbering System - adult teeth numbered 1-32 and primary teeth numbered A-T
2. Palmer Notation - adult teeth given a number 1-8 and the quadrant is designated by corners drawn around numbers; primary teeth are A-E
3. International System - adult teeth given a number 1-8 and quadrant is designated with a number 1-4; primary teeth quadrant given a number 5-8
What are the two zones of gingiva?
-attached gingiva (keratinized)
What are the six types of periodontal ligament fibers?
What are the 4 structures that make up the periodontium?
-gingiva (free and attached)
-periodontal ligament fibers
What are the functions of healthy gingiva?
-support (attaches the gingiva to the tooth and the cementum)
-protection (protects due to tough tissue layer that is keratinized)
-phonetics (affected by open embrasures that allow air to whistle through spaces)
What are the 3 diseases associated with periodontia?
What are the associated factors with gingival recession?
-bony dehiscence (isolated area of tooth root denuded of its bony covering)
What is an operculum?
a flap of tissue that may remain over part of the chewing surface of the mandibular last molar that is prone to irritation and infection
What is the difference between plaque and calculus?
Plaque is a thin layer containing organized microorganisms that loosely adhere to teeth, but can be removed with proper tooth brushing and flossing.
Calculus is a hard complex mineral layer formed from plaque that is firmly attached to the tooth (calcium in the calculus may come from saliva or blood/tissue fluid).
What are the 8 indicators of periodontal disease and conditions?
-gingival margin level (gingival recession/non-recession)
-clinical attachment loss
-bleeding on probing (BOP)
What is the typical depth of the gingival sulcus?
What is the definition of clinical attachment loss (clinical attachment level)?
the distance from the CEJ to the apical extent (depth) of the periodontal sulcus; measurement indicates how much support has been lost and is a critical determinant of whether periodontal disease has occurred
Where is the furcation involvement checked for maxillary molars?
midfacial, mesial, and distal
Where is the furcation involvement checked for mandibular molars?
midlingual and midfacial
What are the 3 types of mucogingival defects?
-keratinized gingiva is present but is not attached (in other words, gingival suclus is deeper than attached gingiva)
-visual lack of keratinized gingiva (or very narrow keratinized gingiva)
-movement or blanching at the gingival margin when the frenum is moved
What is the name of the opening between the pulp chamber to the pulp canal?
What is a Type I root canal? What teeth can this be found in?
one canal to one apical foramina; may be found in most maxillary incisors and canines as well as mandibular premolars
What is a Type II root canal?
two separate canals join at one apical foramina
What is a Type III root canal? What teeth can this type be found in?
two separate canals from the pulp chamber continue to two separate apical foramina; may be found in maxillary first premolar
What is a Type IV root canal? What teeth may this type be found in?
one canal from the pulp chamber but splits into two canals and two apical foramina; may be found in mandibular canines (less than 20%)
How many pulp horns are usually found in incisors?
3 pulp horns (one for each facial lobe/mamelon); peg lateral incisors, which form from only one lobe, are more likely to have only one pulp horn
How many pulp horns can be found in canines?
one pulp horn under the one cusp
Do pulp cavities get bigger or smaller as teeth grow older? Why?
Pulp cavities get smaller as teeth age.
This is because:
-deposit of secondary (additional) dentin as we age
-new dentin (reparative) forms as reaction to injury
-calcium hydroxide liner can be used to stimulate additional dentin
How many pulp horns are found in maxillary premolars?
two horns (one per functional cusp)
How many pulp horns are found in mandibular premolars?
Mandibular first premolars with a functionless lingual cusp may only have one pulp horn.
Mandibular second premolars may have 2-3 pulp horns depending on the number of cusps.
How many pulp horns are found in molars?
One pulp horn per functional cusp so:
-maxillary first molars and 4-cusp second molars would have 4 horns (cusp of Carabelli does not have a horn)
-3-cusp maxillary second molars would have 3 horns
-mandibular first molars would have 5 horns
mandibular second molars would have 4 horns
How many root canals are in maxillary molars?
Maxillary molars have 3 roots and usually 4 canals with 2 canals in the mesiobuccal root and 1 in each of the other two roots
How many root canals are in mandibular molars?
Mandibular molars often have 2 roots but 3 canals with 2 canals in the mesial root and 1 canal in the distal root.
How does the pulp shape in primary teeth compare to that of secondary teeth?
Primary teeth have a pulp that is proportionally larger than on secondary teeth. Dentin and enamel is thinner so the pulp is closer to the external surface.