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Flashcards in Oral Healthcare Issues Deck (22)
1

What keeps your teeth from falling out?

periodontal ligament
glues teeth to bone

2

How many teeth by age 3?

20
8 incisors + 4 canines + 8 molars

3

How many teeth does an adult have?

32
8 incisors + 4 canines + 8 premolars + 12 molars

4

Early Childhood Carries

Infectious and transmissible
Destroys tooth structure
Affects children under 5

5

Etiology of carries

Oral bacteria (Mutans Strep) break down dietary sugars into acids which eat away the tooth

Mutans Strep is vertically transmitted from primary caregiver

How often sugar is eaten is more important than how much sugar is eaten at once

6

White spots on teeth

Indicate that acids have demineralized enamel

First clinical signs of caries

Indication for dental referral

7

Preventing early childhood caries

Screening exams
Oral hygiene: brush 2x daily
Dietary guidance
Fluoride
Inform/advise about dental sealants
Age 1 dental visit
Improve parent oral health and dietary habits

8

Oral cancer and pre-cancer

Alcohol and tobacco increase risk of oral cancers
Early lesions may be asymptomatic
Look at lateral tongue, floor of mouth, inside of lips

9

Periodontal disease (etiology and types)

Etiology: Chronic plaque at gum line, bacterial infection, host inflammatory response

Types: Gingivitis, chronic periodontitis, aggressive periodontitis

10

Gingivitis

Mildest form of PD

Mild gum swelling, tenderness, erythema, gums bleed during brushing, can occur acutely with foreign body, reversible

Etiologies: Plaque, pregnancy, disease, trauma

11

Chronic periodontitis

More severe than gingivitis

Infection and inflammation induce loss of bone and tooth attachment

Rare in children, present in 50% of adults

Smoking a major risk

Prevention: good oral hygiene, brushing and flossing, avoid tobacco

12

Aggressive periodontitis

Otherwise healthy

Rapid attachment loss and bone destruction

Amount of microbial deposits inconsistent with disease severity

Familial association

13

What systemic diseases are linked to oral health?

Invective endocarditis
Prosthetic device infection
Diabetes

Emerging evidence:
Obesity
CAD
Adverse pregnancy outcome
Lower respiratory disease

14

Diabetes and oral heath

Poor glycemic control associated with 3x increase risk of periodontitis

A chronic infection (like periodontal disease) complicates glucose control

15

Coronary heart disease and periodontitis

Associated but causation is not clear

Systemic Ab response to periodontitis IS associated with CHD

Smoking is associated with both

Elevated CRP levels in both

16

Pregnancy: preeclampsia

Women with periodontitis were twice as likely to develop preeclampsia and specific organisms were associated

Endothelial cell damage due to inflammatory mediators is a proposed mechanism

17

Lower respiratory disease

Chronic aspiration of bacteria
Hospitalized/ventilated pts are particularly at risk

18

Iatrogenic: xerostomia

Decreased saliva promotes periodontal disease

Steroids
Antihistamines
Diuretics
Antihypertensives
Anticholinergics
Antidepressants

19

What is the most common chronic disease of childhood?

Dental caries
5x more likely than asthma
50% in low income children

20

Until what age do kids need help brushing their teeth?

6 years

21

What age do kids start to get teeth

6 months

22

What causes dental cavities

sugar, bacteria, teeth