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Flashcards in Oral Muscles Deck (30)
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Composition of frenum (3)

Do they have musculature? Who studied this?

Non-keratinized, unattached alveolar mucosa, myelinated nerve fiber bundles, and small vascular channels

35% of maxillary frenum have small striated muscle; Gartner 1991


What are the muscles of mastication?

What nerve innervates them?

Medial pterygoid
Lateral pterygoid

All innervated by trigeminal nerve


What is in the retromylohyoid fossa?

Superior constrictor (posterolateral aspect)
Palatoglossus (posteromedial aspect)
Mylohyoid (medial aspect)


What is in the pterygomaxillary fissure / hamular notch?

1. Origin of pterygomandibular raphe
2. Tendon of tensor veil palatini


Muscles of modiolus (7)

Levator anguli oris
Depressor angluli oris
Orbicularis oris
Zygomaticus major
Zygomaticus minor


Innervation of tongue?

Motor: XII - Hypoglossal (solely motor function - all extrinsic and intrinsic muscles)

Mucosa anterior 2/3: V3 for sensation. Taste via facial
Mucosa posterior 1/3: IX - Glossopharyngeal for sensation/taste


Innervation of palate

Anterior 1/3 - Nasopalatine
Posterior 2/3 - Greater palatine


Describe the embryological origin of cleft palate

Palatine shelves (lateral palatine processes) fail to fuse with each other or with the primary palate (median palatine processes)


Describe the embryological origin of cleft lip

Median palatine processes fail to fuse with median nasal processes


Physiology of speaking (Martone)
- What are the three physiological valves?

1. Mouth
2. True vocal folds of the larynx
3. Palatopharyngeal region (nasal, oral, and laryngeal pharynx)


Innervation of speech

V: Muscles of soft palate
VII: Muscles of face
IX: Pharnygeal muscles (glossopharyngeal)
X: Vagus (pharyngeal, larynx, soft palate)
XII: Hypoglossal (tongue)


Cranial nerve XII innervates all of the extrinsic and intrinsic muscles of the tongue except one. Which one and which nerve does innervate it?

Palatoglossus, which is innervated by the vagus nerve (X)


What are the four extrinsic muscles of the tongue?

1. Genioglossus (XII)
2. Hyoglossus (XII)
3. Styloglossus (XII)
4. Palatoglossus (X)


What are the four intrinsic muscles of the tongue?

1. Superior longitudinal muscle
2. Inferior longitudinal muscle
3. Vertical muscle
4. Transverse muscle


The tongue receives blood supply from what artery?

Lingual artery, a branch of the external carotid


What evokes the gag reflex?

1. Roof of mouth
2. Back of tongue
3. Area around tonsils
4. Uvula
5. Back of throat


What nerves are involved with the gag reflex?

Sensory: CN IX (glossopharyngeal) if pharyngeal touched or CN V if soft palate touched

Motor: CN X (vagus) for pharyngeal constriction
CN V (jaw opening)
CN 12 (tongue thrust)


The gag reflex involves which muscles?

Brisk and brief elevation of soft palate and bilateral contraction of pharyngeal muscles.


Describe the movements and muscles involved in border molding the maxilla

Anterior: Lip is elevated and extended downward and inward (orbiculares oris)

Buccal frenum: Cheek is elevated and pulled outward, downward, and inward, forward and back. (Orbiculares oris, buccinators, elevator angluli oris)

Posteriolateral: Open wide, move jaw side to side (pterygomandibular raphe, buccinator, sup constrictor, coronoid process, medial pterygoid)


Describe the movements and muscles involved in border molding the buccal aspect of mand

Anterior: Lower lip outward, upward, inward (mentalis and orbiculares oris)

Buccal frenum: Cheek outward, upward, inward, backward and forward (depressor angle oris)

Posteriorly: Cheek is pulled buccal to ensure tissue not trapped


Describe movements and muscles for border molding the lingual aspect of mand

Anterior lingual flange: Tongue protrusion (genioglossus)

Anterior flange thickness (have tongue push against front part of palate)

Posterior lingual flanges: tongue pushes against front part of palate to active mylohyoid and sup constrictor

Inferior edge of both posterior lingual flanges: Palatoglossus

Distal of retromolar pad/masseteric notch: Open wide (pterygomandibular raphe comes forward), then thrust tongue out (genioglossu), on close (masseter pushes on the buccinator to make messeteric notch and medial pterygoids push against the retromylohyoid curtains to make distal end of lingual flange)


Lateral pterygoid
- Origin (1)
- Insertion (1)
- Action

1. Lateral surface of lateral pterygoid plate
2. Neck of condyle, disc, and capsule of TMJ
3. Depresses, protrudes, moves mandible side to side


Medial pterygoid
- Origin (2)
- Insertion
- Action

1. Larger head originates from medial surface of lat pterygoid plate; smaller head originates from pyramidal process of palatine bone and tuberosity
2. Medial surface of ramus
3. Elevates mandible


- Origin
- Insertion (2)
- Action

1. Zygomatic arch
2. Superficial head inserts into lateral surface of ramus; Deep head inserts into coronoid process of mandible
3. Elevates mandible


- Origin
- Insertion (2)
- Action

1. Lateral surface of skull
2. Coronoid process and anterior border of ramus
3. Elevates mandible, posterior part retrudes jaw


Tensor veli palatini
- Origin (2)
- Insertion
- Action (2)

1. Sphenoid's medial pterygoid plate and eustachian tube
2. Palatine aponeurosis
3. Tenses soft palate and also pulls eustachian tube


Levator veli palatini
- Origin
- Insertion
- Action

1. Petrous temporal bone and eustachian tube
2. Palatine aponeurosis
3. Elevators soft palate


- Origin
- Insertion
- Action

1. Palatine aponeurosis
2. Side of tongue
3. Pulls soft palate towards tongue


- Origin
- Insertion
- Action (2)

1. Palatine aponeurosis
2. Upper border of thyroid cartilage
3. Tenses soft palate and draws pharyngx anteriorly upon swallowing


Uvulae musculus
- Origin (2)
- Insertion
- Action

1. Posterior nasal spine and palatine aponeurosis
2. Mucuous membrane of uvulae
3. Shortens uvulae