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Flashcards in Oral Muscles Deck (30)
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1

Composition of frenum (3)

Do they have musculature? Who studied this?

Non-keratinized, unattached alveolar mucosa, myelinated nerve fiber bundles, and small vascular channels

35% of maxillary frenum have small striated muscle; Gartner 1991

2

What are the muscles of mastication?

What nerve innervates them?

Temporalis
Masseter
Medial pterygoid
Lateral pterygoid

All innervated by trigeminal nerve

3

What is in the retromylohyoid fossa?

Superior constrictor (posterolateral aspect)
Palatoglossus (posteromedial aspect)
Mylohyoid (medial aspect)

4

What is in the pterygomaxillary fissure / hamular notch?

1. Origin of pterygomandibular raphe
2. Tendon of tensor veil palatini

5

Muscles of modiolus (7)

Buccinator
Levator anguli oris
Depressor angluli oris
Risorius
Orbicularis oris
Zygomaticus major
Zygomaticus minor

6

Innervation of tongue?

Motor: XII - Hypoglossal (solely motor function - all extrinsic and intrinsic muscles)

Mucosa anterior 2/3: V3 for sensation. Taste via facial
Mucosa posterior 1/3: IX - Glossopharyngeal for sensation/taste

7

Innervation of palate

Anterior 1/3 - Nasopalatine
Posterior 2/3 - Greater palatine

8

Describe the embryological origin of cleft palate

Palatine shelves (lateral palatine processes) fail to fuse with each other or with the primary palate (median palatine processes)

9

Describe the embryological origin of cleft lip

Median palatine processes fail to fuse with median nasal processes

10

Physiology of speaking (Martone)
- What are the three physiological valves?

1. Mouth
2. True vocal folds of the larynx
3. Palatopharyngeal region (nasal, oral, and laryngeal pharynx)

11

Innervation of speech

V: Muscles of soft palate
VII: Muscles of face
IX: Pharnygeal muscles (glossopharyngeal)
X: Vagus (pharyngeal, larynx, soft palate)
XII: Hypoglossal (tongue)

12

Cranial nerve XII innervates all of the extrinsic and intrinsic muscles of the tongue except one. Which one and which nerve does innervate it?

Palatoglossus, which is innervated by the vagus nerve (X)

13

What are the four extrinsic muscles of the tongue?

1. Genioglossus (XII)
2. Hyoglossus (XII)
3. Styloglossus (XII)
4. Palatoglossus (X)

14

What are the four intrinsic muscles of the tongue?

1. Superior longitudinal muscle
2. Inferior longitudinal muscle
3. Vertical muscle
4. Transverse muscle

15

The tongue receives blood supply from what artery?

Lingual artery, a branch of the external carotid

16

What evokes the gag reflex?

1. Roof of mouth
2. Back of tongue
3. Area around tonsils
4. Uvula
5. Back of throat

17

What nerves are involved with the gag reflex?

Sensory: CN IX (glossopharyngeal) if pharyngeal touched or CN V if soft palate touched

Motor: CN X (vagus) for pharyngeal constriction
CN V (jaw opening)
CN 12 (tongue thrust)

18

The gag reflex involves which muscles?

Brisk and brief elevation of soft palate and bilateral contraction of pharyngeal muscles.

19

Describe the movements and muscles involved in border molding the maxilla

Anterior: Lip is elevated and extended downward and inward (orbiculares oris)

Buccal frenum: Cheek is elevated and pulled outward, downward, and inward, forward and back. (Orbiculares oris, buccinators, elevator angluli oris)

Posteriolateral: Open wide, move jaw side to side (pterygomandibular raphe, buccinator, sup constrictor, coronoid process, medial pterygoid)

20

Describe the movements and muscles involved in border molding the buccal aspect of mand

Anterior: Lower lip outward, upward, inward (mentalis and orbiculares oris)

Buccal frenum: Cheek outward, upward, inward, backward and forward (depressor angle oris)

Posteriorly: Cheek is pulled buccal to ensure tissue not trapped

21

Describe movements and muscles for border molding the lingual aspect of mand

Anterior lingual flange: Tongue protrusion (genioglossus)

Anterior flange thickness (have tongue push against front part of palate)

Posterior lingual flanges: tongue pushes against front part of palate to active mylohyoid and sup constrictor

Inferior edge of both posterior lingual flanges: Palatoglossus

Distal of retromolar pad/masseteric notch: Open wide (pterygomandibular raphe comes forward), then thrust tongue out (genioglossu), on close (masseter pushes on the buccinator to make messeteric notch and medial pterygoids push against the retromylohyoid curtains to make distal end of lingual flange)

22

Lateral pterygoid
- Origin (1)
- Insertion (1)
- Action

1. Lateral surface of lateral pterygoid plate
2. Neck of condyle, disc, and capsule of TMJ
3. Depresses, protrudes, moves mandible side to side

23

Medial pterygoid
- Origin (2)
- Insertion
- Action

1. Larger head originates from medial surface of lat pterygoid plate; smaller head originates from pyramidal process of palatine bone and tuberosity
2. Medial surface of ramus
3. Elevates mandible

24

Masseter
- Origin
- Insertion (2)
- Action

1. Zygomatic arch
2. Superficial head inserts into lateral surface of ramus; Deep head inserts into coronoid process of mandible
3. Elevates mandible

25

Temporalis
- Origin
- Insertion (2)
- Action

1. Lateral surface of skull
2. Coronoid process and anterior border of ramus
3. Elevates mandible, posterior part retrudes jaw

26

Tensor veli palatini
- Origin (2)
- Insertion
- Action (2)

1. Sphenoid's medial pterygoid plate and eustachian tube
2. Palatine aponeurosis
3. Tenses soft palate and also pulls eustachian tube

27

Levator veli palatini
- Origin
- Insertion
- Action

1. Petrous temporal bone and eustachian tube
2. Palatine aponeurosis
3. Elevators soft palate

28

Palatoglossus
- Origin
- Insertion
- Action

1. Palatine aponeurosis
2. Side of tongue
3. Pulls soft palate towards tongue

29

Palatopharyngeus
- Origin
- Insertion
- Action (2)

1. Palatine aponeurosis
2. Upper border of thyroid cartilage
3. Tenses soft palate and draws pharyngx anteriorly upon swallowing

30

Uvulae musculus
- Origin (2)
- Insertion
- Action

1. Posterior nasal spine and palatine aponeurosis
2. Mucuous membrane of uvulae
3. Shortens uvulae