Q: What is the largest bone of the foot?
Q: What bones form the arches of the foot?
Cuboid, navicular, and cuneiforms
Term: Arched part of the top of the foot between the toes and ankle
2. Main symptoms
1. Sharp, short pain between toes near the MT heads
2. Pain with walking/running
Content: Treatment for Metatarsalgia
MT head pad - place inside 1st-5th MT head at same angle as MT heads
Content: Planatar Fasciitis
2. Daily Cycle
3. If left untreated
1. Inflammation of the plantar fascia
2. Night/Morning = stiff from being in a shortened position;
Day = stretched out/relaxed
3. Become chronic and requires surgery
Q: What is the most important part of plantar fasciitis treatment?
Content: Treatment for Plantar Fasciitis (4)
1. Deep massage several times a day
2. Stretching includes toes
3. Ice massage
4. Night splint
Q: Who is most susceptible to achilles tendonitis?
30-45 yo (middle aged) men
Q: What aspect of a shoe can be changed for Achilles tendonitis?
The CANT (make it less than 90 degrees) or add a heel lift
Q: What is the CANT of a shoe?
The angle of the back of the shoe compared to the ground
T/F: Having a pronated or supinated foot effects the position of the Achilles Tendon.
True - runs in a curved motion
Q: Excess pronation in toe off puts compression on what part of the ankle?
T/F: Excessive pronations can cause achilles subluxation.
T/F: The more pronated the ankle the more prone to achilles and peroneal tendonitis.
Q: What is the most common type of ankle sprain?
Q: What type of shoe/orthotic is used with grade 2 or 3 ankle sprains?
Content: Early and Often treatment for Ankle Sprain (7)
4. 90 Degrees
6. Early motion as tolerated
7. Heel strike to toe off regardless of the amount of motion
Q: A supinated foot is more prone to what two injuries?
Lateral sprain, Achilles tendonitis (?)
Q: Where do stress fx in the foot typically occur?
T/F: Pronation is a normal movement of the mechanics of the ankle.
True, but not an excessive amount
T/F: A pronated ankle results in a smaller Q angle, causing the patella to ride up medially.
False, larger, laterally
Content: Rigid Orthotics
1. Difficult to adjust
2. Cover 3/4 of the length of the foot
3. Movement only occurs at MT heads
4. Do not allow for normal full foot motion
T/F: A cushion for the shoe provides arch support.
False, if any is provided it is due to the shape of the midsole of the SHOE, not the insert
Q: What type of orthotics allows support and kinematic movement of the arches?
T/F: The purpose of orthotics is to put the foot in a position that can not be attained through natural movement.
False an orthotic should never position the foot in any position that cannot be attained through natural movement
Defn: Pump Bump
Calcification under the achilles tendon
Defn: Turf Toe
Sprain to the ligaments around the big toe joint
Content: Treatment for Turf Toe
Carbon fiber plate or taping
Q: Who are bunions more common in?
Women or those who push off medial foot
Q: When do men and women's feet stop growing?
Men = 18-19
Women = 16
Content: Describe the following types of shoes
3. Motion Control
1. EVA all over, if arch support is added provide support but don't stop pronation
2. Medial and hind foot have been built up
3. For pronated/flat foot, more stability on the mid foot
Content: What to look for when buying shoes (3)
1. Should feel like your not wearing a shoes
2. Shouldn't need to break them in
3. SIZE - use your bigger foot, want half to full size larger (feet swell throughout day)
Content: Shoe Drop
1. Normal drop is 10-12 mm
2. Barefoot running drop is 0-4mm
Q: What is the supposed advantage of bare foot running
Strike more on forefoot > better posture > less respiratory effort
T/F: Shoes correct over pronation
False: can stop you from excessive crushing the medial shoe, but would require an orthotic to address the over pronation