What's special with the Non-Metals?
They are the most abundant elements in the Earth's crust and atmosphere.
Several of these elements are important in our bodies.
In what order do you draw the valence electrons in the Lewis Dot Diagrams?
Same as the Bohr model:
Protons and Neutrons are accountable for what percentage of an atom's mass?
Where would the Lewis Dot Diagram be useful?
Easier and faster to draw,
Able to know the valence electrons quickly
The Element Name
How to abbreaviate the isotope name Neon 22?
What are the three Subatomic particles?
What is an atom?
A single element
What are Isotopes?
Are atoms with the same number of Protons but possesses a different number of neutrons.
Describe the shape of the space in which electrons exist.
A 3D shell that surrounds the nucleus
What is the Atomic Number?
Is the number of protons
This number is unique to each element
The number of electrons is usually the same as the atomic number but not always (i.e. ions)
What is the column on Group 7A called?
What does the Bohr model NOT describe?
The actual structure of the atom
What does the Lewis Dot diagram only show?
Symbol and number of valence electrons
What is the first row on the bottom called?
The Lanthanide Series
What is the second row on the bottom called?
The Actinide Series
Electrons are accountable for what percentage of an atom's mass?
If an atom was blown up to the size of a football stadium, how big would the nucleus be?
Only a small marble
The Element Symbol
What is in between the nucleus and the electrons?
Nothing, mostly empty space
What is the column on Group 8A called?
The Noble Gases
How are Bohr models and Lewis Dot Diagrams different? 3
Lewis Dot Diagrams only shows the valence electrons and element symbol,
Bohr model only shows the number of protons and neutrons instead of a sysmbol and draws the electrons in shells,
You can only draw the Bohr model up to 20 times
What is the valence shell? What are valence electrons?
They are the outermost shell surrounding the nucleus,
Electrons on the valence shell
What are the SIX traits of a Neutron?
Found in the nucleus,
Has no charge (neutral),
Has mass of slightly more than 1 amu,
helps hold the nucleus together,
Abbreaviated as n⁰
Some atoms of an element have different number of neutrons -- these are called isotopes.
How do you find the proton of an element?
You look at their atomic number
What are the (#)order to fill an electron?
2, 8, 8, 8
What is an isotpe?
When an element has more than neutrons than its protons
Can the number of neutrons change?
Yes it is called an isotope
What are the FIVE traits of a Proton?
Found in the nucleus,
Has a positive charge,
Not involved in bonding,
abbreviated as p⁺,
Has a mass of slightly more than 1 amu or 1.6726*10⁻²⁷ kg.
How are Bohr models and Lewis Dot Diagrams alike? 4
They represent the elements,
Don't represent the actual structure of an atom,
Would not exist withouut the existence of elements,
They show how many electrons are in the valence shell
What's special with the Noble Gases? 3
They are elements on the far right,
They are very rare: they were only discovered about 100 years ago.
They are inert, the least reactive of all elements: they have 8 electrons in their ourtermost shell so they don't need anymore electrons to fill their shell.
What is the first column called? (Not including Hydrogen)
The Alkali Metals.
The Atomic Mass
Is there a difference between two hydrogen atoms joined by nuclear forces and a helium atom? Explain.
There is no difference. 2 hydrogen atoms equates to the mass of a helium.
H2 = 2 p+
He = 1 p+ and 1 n0
Who made the Bohr Model?
How do you draw a Bohr model? 2
Number of protons and neutrons in the middle
The number of electrons in shells
How many elements is the Bohr model limited to?
1 - 20 only
What is the second column called?
The Alkali Earth Metals
What is the Bohr model also called? Explain
Because in the model, the electrons orbit the nucleus in a manner similar to the planets orbiting the sun
What are the two ways to represent an atom?
The Bohr Model and the Lewis Dot Diagram
What are the electrons called that reside in the valence shell?
What are groups in the Peridic Table of Elements? 2
Also known as Family,
They are a column of elements usually with the same reactivity (number of valence electrons in their outermost shell (valence shell))
What is the Atomic Mass?
The sum of protons and neutrons (each weight slightly more than 1 amu)
Ex. Sodium has 11 p⁺ and 12 n⁰; its Atomic Mass is 23
What are the SIX traits of an Electron?
Found in 3D shells that orbit the nucleus (like a matryoshka doll),
Has a negative charge,
Has almost no mass,
All bonding between atoms is based on electrons!,
Abbreaviated as e⁻
Unlike protons and neutrons, electrons cannot be broken down into smaller particles (i.e. they are not made up of quarks)
What is the Metal's section called?
Can the number of electrons in an atom change?
Yes, they are called ions
What are periods in the Periodic Tables of Elements? 3
Also known as rows,
They are identified by their incrasing Atomic number.
Elements of the same row have the same number of electron shells
Can the atomic number of an element change? Explain
No, it becomes a new element
An atom that has an atomic mass of 2 could have how many protons? Explain.
1 or 2 p⁺.
Because as long as that atom only has 2 p⁺ or 1 p⁺ and 1 n⁰, then it is corect.
There is no element on Earth that only has n⁰ inside.
What are the Trends and Patterns in the Periodic Table? 5
Elements are listed in order of increasing number,
Elements with similar properties occur in columns which are called groups,
The number above each group indicates how many electrons are in its valence shell,
Rows are called periods and they are numbered beginning with 1 (this period only includes Hydrogen and Helium)
The period number corresponds with the number of Electron Shells
What rule does the Bohr model follow when drawing the electrons?
How many known mettaloids are there?
What does the atomic mass represent?
The combine mass of protons and neutrons
Where would be a Bohr model be useful?
To know the isotopes.
The Atomic Number
Of one type of element, what are the subatomic particles' number can change but the element(s) will stay the same?
The Neutrons and the Electrons
What's special about the Lanthanide and the Actinide Series? 2
They are transition metals also,
They are relatively rare and not commercially important as the other transition elements.
What is the isotope name of 13C
How to calculate the number of Neutrons of an element?
Take the Atomic mass, round it to the nearest number and subtract that by the number of protons.