Exam on June 21, 2016 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Exam on June 21, 2016 Deck (26):

What is Newton's 1st law called? 2

This law is often called
"the law of inertia".

An object in motion will remain in motion with the same speed and in the same direction unless acted upon by an unbalanced force. An object at rest will remain at rest unless acted on by an unbalanced force.

What does this mean?
This means that there is a natural tendency of objects to keep on doing what they're doing. All objects resist changes in their state of motion. In the absence of an unbalanced force, an object in motion will maintain this state of motion.


What is Newton's 2nd law called? 2

Acceleration is produced when a force acts on a mass. The greater the mass (of the object being accelerated) the greater the amount of force needed (to accelerate the object).


What does this mean?
Everyone unconsiously knows the Second Law. Everyone knows that heavier objects require more force to move the same distance as lighter objects.


What is Newton's 3rd law called?

For every action there is an equal and opposite re-action.

What does this mean?
This means that for every force there is a reaction force that is equal in size, but opposite in direction. That is to say that whenever an object pushes another object it gets pushed back in the opposite direction equally hard.


What is a Thermometer? and how does it work?

A thermometer measures the temperature. It is a device that has alcohol is a vacuumed tube in which the liquid will rise due to warm water expands, as the temperature increases, As the temperature decreases, the liquid will fall down because cold water is more denser than warm water


What is a Barometer? and how does it work?

A barmeter measures the atmospheric pressure. It is a device that is about 3 feet high with one end open and the other end sealed. It is a device that uses mercury. To keep the mercury stable, we put oil in top of the mercury. It measures the atmospheric pressure by using the same concept of a thermometer, but instead of temperature, it relies on how much pressure there are in the surrounding place. The mercury would expand as the pressure increases and mellow down as the atmospheric pressure is low.


How does the angle of the Earth affect the seasons?

Thanks to the angle of the Earth, winter affects, depending on how the earth is facing, will affect only the Northern hemisphere. AS we experience winter in the Northern hemisphere, the southern hemisphere is experiencing a warm summer.


What are the 3 main influences on ocean current patterns?

Coriolis Effect,




During the northern hemisphere's winter, what Pole would experience 24 hours of sunlight?

The South Pole


What is distance a quantity of?

A scalar


What is displacement a quantity of?

A vector quantity


What is a vector? 4

Are measurements that tell us the magnitude of the quantity being measured and the direction over which it is being measured.

The symbols see to denote vectors are usually letters with a small arrow above them.

Vectors can be added, subtracted and divided, etc. But must be modified to the process being used according to the direction attached to the quantity. YOU CAN’T TREAT VECTORS LIKE regular numbers

Vectors the tells us "how many" and "where"


What is a scalar? 4

Are measurements that tells us only the magnitude of the quantity being measured

Scalars numbers tell us "how many"

The symbols used to denote scalars are usually letters.

Scalars can be added, subtracted, multiplied and divided, etc. JUST LIKE REGULAR NUMBERS


What is distance? 3

a scalar quantity that measures the space of an object as it moves through our 3 dimensional world

Is equal to the sum of the distances moved in any and all spatial dimensions/directions

Measured in SI base units called metres (m)


What is velocity a quantity of?

It is a vector quantity


What is speed? 2

Is a scalar quantity that measures how far an object travels (distance) in a given time

Expressed in SI units called metres per second (ms-1)


What is the Coriolis Effect?

As air (winds) blows toward the equator, they are moving slower than the land is rotating. This causes air (winds) to twist or curve west.

As air (winds) blows away from the equator, they are moving faster than the land, causing the air (winds) to twist or curve east.


What is an ecological succession? Use an example in your answer.

It is when an ecosystem is gradually replaced by another. It is a series of change that can start with a bare landscape. For example, in a volcanic rock landscape, lichen can move in from the wind v=because they don't need soil or shelter. They break down rock and make soil. Now plants that can survive in this soils like mosses moves in. Organisms that eat moss moves in with them. In this once bare bare landscape, there is a lot of decay and soil where different kinds of organisms can sustain themselves.


What role do disturbances like forest fire play in forest sucession? Include "primary community" and "secondary community" in your answer.

Disturbances like forest fire will kill some species of the original "primary community". As the ecosystem repairs itself, the old ecosystem will not be the same as the old one. Some new species could have moved in, now making the ecosystem a "secondary community"


What causes wind to blow on shore from the ocean during the night?

Convection currents.


What is El nino?

Is an abnormal climate phenomenon in which the weather is more rainy or drier than normal. It happens when trade winds in Sounth AMerica are weak. It causes the surface of the water in the ouyth eastern part of the Pacific Ocean to be warm rather than cold. Thanks to this, South America experineces more rain than usual and Australia to have more droughts than usual, they have less moiture coming to them.


What are the complete scientific classification of organisms? 6






Genus and Species


What is Ecology?

The study of interactions between living things and their environment.


What is Biology?

The study of how and why living things work.


What is the Pyramid of Biomass? 2

Refers to how much mass of a particular species or trophic level is present in an area.

The biomass of producers is usually greater than the biomass of primary consumers. This trend continues as you move up the food chain


What is the Pyramid of Numbers?



What is the Pyramid of Energy?