Test on June 13, 2016 (Weather) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Test on June 13, 2016 (Weather) Deck (47):
1

What are the potential consequences of climate change? At least 5

Sea level is rising. ...

Arctic sea ice is melting. ...

Glaciers and permafrost are melting. ...

Sea-surface temperatures are warming. ...

The temperatures of large lakes are warming. ...

Heavier rainfall cause flooding in many regions. ...

Extreme drought is increasing. ...

Crops are withering.

2

In a weather map, What is low pressure associated with?

Humid-air with a chance of rain because when hot and cold air meet, the wind in the place of two temperatures touching, goes up along with the moistures.

3

Define Convection when talking about Thermal/heat energy 2

Also called radiant energy

Thermal/heat energy that is transferred by a “middle man” EXAMPLE: when you bake a cake, in an oven (Energy is transferred to the air in the oven and then from the air to the cake)

4

What is EM Radiation?

Electro-Magnetic Radiation

5

Out of all the EM radiation from the Sun, thermal energy that hits the Earth, 30% will be BLANK

Reflected

6

Define Radiation when talking about Thermal/heat energy 3

Thermal/heat energy that is transferred when a “hot” object emits EM Radiation.

All objects emit radiant energy

Does not require a “middle-man”

7

Because Ultraviolet has the shortest wavelength, out of Infrared and Visible Light, does it carry the largest amount of energy?

Yes

8

What are Isotherms on a weather map?

Are lines on the weather map that connect regions with identical TEMPERATURE

9

Define Convection as a factor of changing wind 3

is the circular motion that happens when warmer air or liquid — which has faster moving molecules, making it less dense — rises, while the cooler air or liquid drops down.

is a major factor in weather, the sun heats the earth’s surface, then, when cooler air comes into contact with it, the air warms and rises, creating an upward current in the atmosphere. That current can result in wind, clouds, or other weather.

EXAMPLE: Convection ovens use fans to circulate heat so that whatever you're cooking cooks faster and more evenly.

10

Does air tend to heat up or cool down near the equator?

Heat up

NOTES
This warm air rises and is replaced with colder air from the polar regions

11

In a weather map, What is high pressure associated with?

Dry weather because in a high pressure, it blows in all direction leaving no air to go up and form rain clouds

12

Out of all the EM radiation from the Sun, thermal energy that hits the Earth, 70% will be BLANK

Absorbed

13

All weather events on Earth are caused almost exclusively by BLANK?

The Sun

14

What are the effects of El Niño 3

EFFECT
Gives some parts of the Earth a drought whereas some places are experiencing more rain than usual.

Cause dramatic changes in local weather patterns

Coastal waters can’t support fish populations

15

What do land and water absorb a lot of? In terms of the wavelength ultraviolet radiation from the sun?

Short wavelengths

16

What are the 3 ways of transferring thermal/heat energy?

Conduction

Convection

Radiation

17

What is Visible Light?

3 Lights the naked eye can see

When all colours are mixed in, it will appear white.

ROYGBV(Red, Orange, Yellow, Green, Blue and Violet)

18

As particles absorb more and more energy, do they heat up or cool down?

They heat up

19

Define Solar Radiation.

Solar radiation is radiant energy emitted by the sun from a nuclear fusion reaction that creates electromagnetic waves including visible and ultraviolet light and infrared radiation.

20

Define Conduction when talking about Thermal/heat energy

Thermal/heat energy that is transferred when two objects touch

21

What form of energy from the Fusion reactions of the Sun is released and travels to the Earth?

Electromagnetic Radiation

NOTES
Only certain “kinds” of radiation from the Sun influence the weather on the Earth.

22

Define Cloud cover. 2

A mass of cloud covering all or most of the sky.

Them being bright objects in the visible part of the solar spectrum, they efficiently reflect light to space and thus contribute to the cooling of the planet

23

What kind of reaction in the sun release huge amounts of energy?

Fusion

NOTES
At very high temperatures (~15,000,000*C), 2 hydrogen atoms fuse together to form 1 helium atom.

When this process occurs, large amounts of ENERGY are released.

24

How many times, in number, does it take to raise the temperature of water in comparison to land?

4 times as much energy needed to raise the temperature of water 1 degree than it does land.

25

What are Isobars on a weather map?

Are lines on the weather map that connect regions with identical ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE

26

Explain the concept of Prevailing Westerlies.

The west-to-east winds that occur in the temperate zones of the Earth.

They are prevailing winds from the west toward the east in the middle latitudes between 30 and 60 degrees latitude. They originate from the high-pressure areas.

27

What are the 5 factors influencing Earth’s radiation budget?

Cloud Cover

Albedo

Solar Radiation

Absorption

Latitude

28

Explain the concept of El Niño. 5 (2 causes, 3 effects)

CAUSE
El Niño is an abnormal weather pattern that is caused by the warming of the Pacific Ocean near the equator, off the coast of South America. This occurs when the normal trade winds weaken (or even reverse), which lets the warm water that is usually found in the western Pacific flow instead towards the east.

This warm water displaces the cooler water that is normally found near the surface of the eastern Pacific, setting off atmospheric changes that affect weather patterns in many parts of the world.

EFFECT
Gives some parts of the Earth a drought whereas some places are experiencing more rain than usual.

Cause dramatic changes in local weather patterns

Coastal waters can’t support fish populations

29

What is Infrared light? 3 All objects give off this kind of energy

All objects give off this kind of energy

Cannot be seen by a naked eye

Carries the least amount of energy out of Ultraviolet and Visible light because it has the longest wavelength of the three.

30

Define Atmospheric Absorption

Is absorption by the earth's atmosphere of most of the X-rays and ultraviolet and infrared radiation emitted by the sun, except visible light. It prevents the earth's surface from becoming too hot.

31

What are the causes of El Niño 2

CAUSE
El Niño is an abnormal weather pattern that is caused by the warming of the Pacific Ocean near the equator, off the coast of South America. This occurs when the normal trade winds weaken (or even reverse), which lets the warm water that is usually found in the western Pacific flow instead towards the east.

This warm water displaces the cooler water that is normally found near the surface of the eastern Pacific, setting off atmospheric changes that affect weather patterns in many parts of the world.

32

What are the three distinct “kinds” of energy that affect weather on Earth?

Infrared

Visible Light

Ultraviolet

33

Define Latitude

Latitude is the measurement of the distance of a location on the Earth from the equator. The further away from the equator that a location resides, the less sunlight that this location receives.

Because the Earth is round, only the front most portion receives direct sunlight.

34



Explain the concept of Jet Streams. 5

Are ribbons of extremely fast moving air between 100-300km/h that are usually thousands of km long and a few kilometers thick.

They are caused by contact between cold and warm air

Found at the boundary between polar and temperature zones

During our summer, the Polar jet stream lies North of the 60th parallel

During our winter, the Polar jet stream lies South of the 40th parallel

35

When the infrared, visible light and ultraviolet energy from the Sun reaches the Earth, it is transformed and re-emitted as BLANK

Thermal energy

36

Do only certain “kinds” of radiation from the Sun influence the weather on the Earth.

Yes

37

Define Albedo 4

Albedo is another name for reflectivity.

The albedo of a surface determines how much sunlight will be absorbed and warm the surface compared to another surface that reflects most of the light and does not change temperature.

A high albedo means the surface reflects the majority of the radiation that hits it and absorbs the rest.

A low albedo means a surface reflects a small amount of the incoming radiation and absorbs the rest.

38

When air is close to the ground, does it heat up more quickly than air that is further from the ground?

Yes, think about in the summer. The ground looks hazy because of the heat rising from the hot day.

39

Which heats up more quickly? Dry land or Water?

Dry land

40

Across southern Canada, which direction do winds primarily blow?

The winds blow primarily from west to the east

Called the Prevailing Westerlies.

41

What absorbs LONG wavelength radiation (infrared) that is emitted from the Earth?

Air

42

Define the Coriolis Effect.

The Coriolis effect is defined as how a moving object seems to veer toward the right in the Northern hemisphere and left in the Southern hemisphere. An example of the Coriolis effect is hurricane winds turning left in the Northern hemisphere.

43

Water is constantly moving, BLANK cooler water with the water that has been warmed.

Mixing

44

In the southern hemisphere, which direction do winds tend to move?

Counter-Clockwise

45

What direction does the earth rotate from?

From West to east

46

In the northern hemisphere, which direction do winds tend to move?

Clockwise

47

What are the three fundamental process that affect wind currents on Earth?

Convection

Coriolis Effect

Jet Streams