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Flashcards in Test on Friday the 13, 2016 Deck (30):
1

In science, what is a theory? 2

"An established scientific model that EXPLAINS OBSERVATIONS and MAKES PREDICTIONS"

In other words, theories come to existence when many, many facts have been gathered -- a theory explains why those facts happen.

2

Define genetic make-up

"Genetic makeup" refers to the genes that determine what you look like and what physical characteristics you have. They are your GENOTYPE, and when these genes are expressed (the color of your eyes, your blood type, your hair texture, the structure of your digestive enzymes, etc), you are showing your PHENOTYPE.

3

What is the role of MUTATIONS in evolution?

Mutations allow some specific part of DNA or genes to be modifies, sometimes it is useful ( like developing hard sheels in groundnuts ) or harmful like mutations in atomic bombings.

4

Define population

A population is a summation of all the organisms of the same group or species, which live in a particular geographical area, and have the capability of interbreeding

5

List 5 scientific theories

Quantum Mechanics Theory

Atomic Theory

Cell Theory

Big Bang Theory

Chaos Theory

Germ theory of disease


6

Define Generation

All of the people born and living at about the same time, regarded collectively.

7

Define the term "carrying capacity" and how it is useful

It is the maximum, equilibrium number of organisms of a particular species that can be supported indefinitely in a given environment.

It is useful because when a population of a species is too big, they can destroy the environment by depleting its resources

8

What are the four factors that affect carrying capacity?

Population density

Materials and Energy

Food Chains

Competition for Food

9

What is Materials and Energy when it refers to one of the 4 factors that determine carrying capacity?

All populations are limited by the supply of essential materials (carbon, water. Etc.) and the amount of usable energy from the sun.

10

What is Food Chains when it refers to one of the 4 factors that determine carrying capacity?

The population size at any tropic levels is limited by the tropic level below it (what it eats) and the tropic level above it. (What eats it)

11

What is Competition for Food when it refers to one of the 4 factors that determine carrying capacity? 3

There is Intraspecific and Interspecific.

Intraspecific is competition of members of the same species. (Food, mate, territory)

Interspecific is competition between different species. (Food, territory)

12

What is Population density when it refers to one of the 4 factors that determine carrying capacity?

Different organisms require different amounts of space. (Based on size, environment and way of life)

13

What are the 2 Maximum Population Density factors?

Density-dependent factors

Density-independent factors

14

What is Density-dependent factor based on Maximum Population Density? Come up with 4 examples

Will increase or decrease the carrying capacity based on the SIZE of a population

Ex. Amount of food available

Infectious diseases can spread rapidly

Paratism

Predation

15

What is Density-independent factor based on Maximum Population Density? Come up with 4 examples

Will increase or decrease the carrying capacity REGARDLESS of the size of the population.

Ex. A forest fire

Tornado

Tsunami

Volcanic eruption

16

What are the acronyms for VIST?

Variation

Inheritance

Selection

Time

17

What is "V" in VIST? What does it stand for? Give an example related to octopi.

Variation -- not all members of a population are the same.

Ex. Some octopi may be able to change their colour to match their surrounding

18

What is "I" in VIST? What does it stand for? Give an example related to octopi.

Inheritance -- many of these variations (I.E. Differences) are inherited through genes.

Ex. The ability to change colour is due to genes and can be passed on to offspring.

19

What is "S" in VIST? What does it stand for? Give an example related to octopi.

Selection -- individuals better suited to the environment will survive and reproduce.

Ex. Individuals with the ability to change colour will be more likely to survive (I.E. They will be selected) they can camouflage

20

What is "T" in VIST? What does it stand for? Give an example related to octopi.

Time -- given enough time, gene(s) that improve survival will become more common

Ex. Over time the genes for changing colour will become more and more common until all octopi can change colour.

21

What is the relationship between evolution and natural selection?

Natural selection is the driving force of evolution. Variants that are best suited to the environment are the most likely to survive and reproduce, so these variants are more prevalent in subsequent generations.

22

Use the peppered moth example to explain natural selection. 5

The peppered moth have been living in Great Britain for thousand of years.

Most peppered moths had a white body that allowed them to be camouflaged and not get eaten like their black moth counterparts when sleeping in an oak tree. Some of them survived though.

Then the industrial revolution came. Before there was no pollution, now there are tons that soot literally covered the landscape.

Tree trunks began to turn black.

In this "new" environment" black coloured moths had an advantage. The number of white moths decreased over time. The percentage of Black moths only increased in areas where there were factories and pollution.

23

What is "V" in VIST? What does it stand for? Give an example related to treefrogs

Colour Differences -- Some treefrogs are gray, others were green

24

What is "I" in VIST? What does it stand for? Give an example related to treefrogs 2

Green treefrogs will have green offsprings,
Gray treefrogs will have gray offsprings

25

What is "S" in VIST? What does it stand for? Give an example related to treefrogs 3

Location -- Gray Treefrogs live farther north than Green Treefrogs.

Gray Treefrogs fared better in wooded areas with temporary pools,

Green Treefrogs fared better in open wetland areas with cattails and other aquatic vegetation.

26

What is "T" in VIST? What does it stand for? Give an example related to treefrogs

Over time, grey and green became the most dominant colors in the treefrog specie

27

What is Materials and Energy when it refers to one of the 4 factors that determine carrying capacity? Give an example related to an African Leopard living in the mountains 2

All populations are limited by the supply of essential materials (carbon, water. Etc.) and the amount of usable energy from the sun.

Each territory has its own sources of water, limited in some territories

28

What is Food Chains when it refers to one of the 4 factors that determine carrying capacity? Give an example related to an African Leopard living in the mountains 3

The population size at any tropic levels is limited by the tropic level below it (what it eats) and the tropic level above it. (What eats it)

Its predator is the human

Carnivore, its prey: Fish, Carrion, Birds, Rodents, Hares, Baboon, Hyraxes, Antelope.

29

What is Competition for Food when it refers to one of the 4 factors that determine carrying capacity? Give an example related to an African Leopard living in the mountains 2

Intraspecific -- Get in fight with each other if one steps in to the other's territory.

Interspecific -- Bring their prey up to the tree so no lion or hyena would steal it.

30

What is Population Density when it refers to one of the 4 factors that determine carrying capacity? Give an example related to an African Leopard living in the mountains 4

Different organisms require different amounts of space. (Based on size, environment and way of life)

Near threatened because of habitat lost.

Density independent factors: Blizzards and avalanches in the mountains

Density dependent factors: Predation from humans