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Flashcards in overview of the nervous system Deck (73):
1

what are the functions of the nervous system?

- gather sensory info from the internal/external environment
- Integrate info for assessment to then produce a response
- Regulate body homeostasis

2

what are the 2 main divisions of the nervous system?

CNS and PNS

3

what makes up the CNS?

brain (brain, cerebral cortex and brainstem) and spinal cord

4

what is the spinal cord an extension of?

the brainstem

5

what does the PNS do?

transmits information to and from the CNS

6

what is the PNS divided into?

autonomic
somatic

7

what is the function of the autonomic nervous system?

regulates glands, blood vessels and internal organs

8

what is the autonomic nervous system divided into?

sympathetic
parasympathetic
enteric

9

what is the function of the somatic nervous system?

controls skeletal muscle

10

what are the functional components of the nervous system?

afferent neurons
interneurons
efferent neurons

11

what do afferent neurons do?

take information from the PNS to the CNS

12

where are the afferent neuron cell bodies found?

just outside the spinal cord as dorsal root ganglia

13

what is the function of interneurons?

relays information to the brain or effector organ

14

where are interneurons found?

in the CNS

15

what is the function of efferent neurons?

takes response from CNS to PNS (effector organs – skeletal muscles or glands)

16

what is the function of dendrites?

collect information

17

what is the function of the cell body of a neuron?

synthetic centre

18

what is the function of the axon of a neuron?

conducts action potential from cell body to other neurons/effector organs

19

how many axons are there per neuron?

one

20

what are the 6 categories of neurons?

Sensory, motor, preganglionic autonomic, postganglionic autonomic, local interneurons, projections neurons

21

where are glial cells found?

CNS and PNS

22

what is the ratio of glial cells to neurons?

10:1

23

what glial cells are found in the PNS?

satellite cells
schwann cells

24

what is the function of satellite cells

support cell bodies, regulate environment around the dorsal root ganglia

Take up excess K+, water and neurotransmitters to regulate the ion and water balance and prevent damage from excess NTS

25

what do schwann cells do?

- secretes neurotrophic factors
- Forms myelin sheaths of the axons of the PNS
- Protects AP so it doesn’t dissipate

26

what are the glial cells of the CNS?

oligodendrocytes
microglia
astrocytes
ependymal cells

27

what is the function of oligodendrocytes?

forms myelin sheaths in the CNS

28

what is the function of microglia?

immune cells of the brain

29

how do microglia work?

Become activated when there’s an infection  act as a macrophage. Phagocytose bacteria that enter through the BBB or dead/dying neurons.

30

what do astrocytes do?

regulate the environment in the CNS
- Provide substrates for ATP
- Help form BBB -
- Secrete neurotrophic factors
- Take up K+, water and NTS
- Source of neural stem cells

31

what is the function of ependymal cells?

create barriers between compartments. Line the ventricular system. Help move the CSF around the ventricular system.

32

how do gliomas form?

uncontrolled mitosis of glial cells which lead to brain tumours

33

name the types of gliomas

Schwannoma, astrocytoma, ependymoma and oligodendroglioma

34

what is an astrocyte scar?

when neurons cant be replaced in brain damage, so astrocytes fill in the gap, forming an astrocyte scar

35

how does an astrocyte scar lead to epilepsy?

Forms barriers between neurons --> malfunction --> epilepsy

36

which protein is linked to alzheimer's disease?

tau

37

what is multiple sclerosis and what effect does it have on the body?

Autoantibodies attack oligodendrocytes and damage them so there’s no myelin around certain neurons --> loss of neuronal signal

38

what does dorsal mean?

posterior

39

what does ventral mean?

anterior

40

what does the corpus collosum do?

connects both cerebral hemispheres

41

what is grey matter?

neuronal cell bodies, dendrites, axon terminal, synapses

42

what is white matter?

bundles of myelinated axons

43

what is the function of reticular formation?

habituation
acts as a filter of what’s important to respond to and what isn’t

44

which part of the brain is involved in higher function?

forebrain

45

which part of the brain is more primitive?

hindbrain and midbrain

46

what is another name for the forebrain?

telencephalon

47

what is the insula?

meeting point of the parietal, frontal and temporal lobes where they all fold over each other. At the lateral fissure

48

what does the insula control?

emotions

49

how many chambers are found in the adult ventricular system

4

50

where is the CSF made?

lateral ventricles - one in each cerebral hemisphere

51

what is the function of the frontal lobe?

problem solving, reasoning, emotion and voluntary motor activity

52

what is the function of the parietal lobe?

sensation

53

what does the central sulcus separate?

frontal and parietal loves

54

what is the function of the temporal lobe?

memory and hearing

55

what is the function of the occipital lobe?

vision

56

how many brodmann areas are there?

52

57

what is the primary motor cortex?

frontal lobe

58

what is the primary sensory cortex?

parietal lobe

59

what is Wernicke's area responsible for?

Comprehension / understanding of written and spoken language

60

which Brodmann's area is Wernicke's area?

22

61

what is the function of Broca's area?

language production

62

which Brodmann's area is Wernicke's area?

44-45

63

what does the left cerebral hemisphere control?

the right side of the body
logic, analysis of facts, understanding of production of language

64

what does the right cerebral hemisphere control?

left side of the body

Imagination, rhythm, holistic thinking, non-verbal language, emotion in language

65

what is the function of the anterior commissure?

connects the temporal lobes

66

what is the function of the internal capsule

Route through which information travels to and from cerebral cortex to subcortical sites

67

where is the thalamus found?

either side of the 3rd ventricle - forms wall of 3rd ventricle

68

what is the function of the thalamus?

receives input from all areas of the nervous system - gateway to the cortex

69

what is the limbic system also known as?

the 5th lobe of the brain

70

a person who is afraid shows increased activity in their?

amygdala

71

where do most cranial nerves originate from? which do not originate from here?

brainstem

except 1 and 2

72

how many pairs of cranial nerves are there?

12

73

how many cranial nerves have motor and/or sensory nuclei in the brainstem?

10