Flashcards in Paper 1 (1.4) Cold War - beginnings Deck (39)
What impact had WW2 had on the major superpowers?
Britain- Military = 326,000. - Civilians = 62,000.
Germany - Military = 3,250,000. - Civilians = 3,820,000.
USSR - Military = 13,600,000. - Civilians = 7,700,000.
USA - Military = 500,000. - Civilians = 5,662.
Who were the superpowers post WW2?
USA & USSR
What areas of the world did the USA have as allies by 1960s?
Britain and Western Europe
What concept did both the USA and USSR fight against in united front?
Fascism - right wing government ideas led by a single leader- Nazism in Germany.
What were the main concepts of USA's Capitalism?
A democratic government.
Elected President and Congress.
Free secret ballots.
Capitalist economy, businesses and property privately owned.
Great contrast of rich and poor in USA.
Freedom of individual.
What was the policy of isolationism for the USA in the 1920s & 1930s?
Prior to WW2, the USA had avoided getting involved in issues around the world, they had encouraged trade partnerships with the USA, but avoided involvement with the League of Nations.
What were the main concepts of USSR's Communism?
People could vote for the Supreme Soviet, but only vote for members of the Communist party.
The government controlled media, religion and speech as well as other parts of people's lives.
A planned economy, government controlled.
A low standard of living existed, but not extreme wealth and poverty.
Determined to protect themselves from attack.
Which conference took place in February 1945 and which key leaders attended?
Attended by Churchill, Roosevelt & Stalin.
What was agreed at Yalta?
Germany to be divided between - USSR, USA, Britain & France.
Berlin to be divided between - USSR, USA, Britain & France.
Eastern European countries to hold free elections for new leadership.
USSR would join with war against Japan.
What did the USSR gain at the Yalta Conference?
Manchuria & Sakhalin Island in Asia.
Poland's border moved west into Germany.
What was the major dispute between the superpowers at Yalta?
USSR wanted Poland's border moved west into German land, Churchill and Roosevelt disagreed, but with Soviet control in Poland, they had no choice.
Which conference took place in July- August 1945 and which leaders attended?
Attended by Truman, Churchill & Stalin. During conference British election meant Churchill was replaced by Attlee.
What was the relationship like between USSR & USA at the Yalta conference?
Roosevelt had died suddenly, Truman became President but was anti- Communist and therefore suspicious of Stalin.
What was discussed at the Potsdam conference?
Victory in Europe and the removal of troops from Europe, after Germany surrendered in May 1945.
Control of Poland.
The Atom Bomb.
How to deal with the Nazis and Germany.
Why did Stalin not trust Truman at Potsdam?
The USA told the USSR about the testing of the new weapon the Atomic Bomb, which was about to be used by the USA on Japan to end WW2.
What was decided at Potsdam regarding Germany?
The Nazi Party would be banned and it's leaders would be tried as war criminals.
Why were there tensions at Potsdam?
Stalin was denied a naval base in the Mediterranean.
Stalin wanted more reparations from Germany than Britain and the USA thought was right. They wanted to avoid crippling Germany.
Stalin had set up a Communist government in Poland.
What did Churchill describe across Europe in 1945/1946?
An Iron Curtain, dividing the East (Communism) and the West (Capitalism), across Europe.
What are reparations?
Money paid to cover the cost of repair/compensation for war.
What did the Soviets keep in Europe in 1946, where as the USA and Britain decreased?
What were satellite states?
Countries of the world in the Cold War who relied heavily on the USSR.
Which areas of Europe were satellite states in the 1940s?
Bulgaria, Poland, Romania, Hungary.
What was Cominform and when was it introduced?
Set up by Stalin in 1947 to create an alliance of Communist countries who would spread Stalin's ideas in return for support from Moscow.
What was Comecon and when was it set up?
Set up by Stalin in 1949, to co-ordinate production and trade between Communist areas of Europe.
Why was Greece an important event in 1947?
Greece had royalists vs communists in 1947. The royalist sought support from the USA to stand up to Communism. Truman supported Greece with arms and money, civil war in 1949 saw communism defeated. Greece became a USA ally.
What was the Truman Doctrine and when did it begin?
In 1947, it aimed to avoid the spread of Communism, Truman and the USA offered support to any nation which help to resist the spread of Communism. It began with Greece and Turkey.
What was Marshall Aid and when was it introduced?
In 1947, the USA believe poverty could allow Communism to spread and needed to develop American trade links.
To stop the spread of Communism and help Europe recover gate the war, billions of dollars was poured into Europe.
What made Marshall Aid different to Comecon?
Marshall Aid with the aim of helping the European economy, was offered to everyone, but only Western Europe accepted it.
Why was Czechoslovakia important in 1948?
Czechoslovakia although in Eastern Europe, was not fully in Stalin's Eastern bloc, it considered accepting Marshall Aid, as elections were due in the spring. Communists organised marches and protests against USA intervention, Masaryk (Czech non communist) died and in 1948, elections took place with only Communist options for voters. The Eastern Bloc spread to now include Czechoslovakia.