Flashcards in Paper 1 (1.2) T of V and L of N Deck (61)
When did the armistice (ceasefire) bring WWI to an end?
11th November 1918, at 11am
How many people died in WWI?
15 million (8.5 million soldiers and 6.6 million civilians)
Who was not invited to the Paris Peace conference January 1919?
Germany because they lost and
USSR because they were communists
Who was blamed for the war?
Who were the ‘Big Three’ (leaders and countries)?
Britain – Lloyd George
France – Clemenceau
USA – Woodrow Wilson
What were the main aspects of Wilson’s Fourteen Points?
1. No secret treaties
2. Free access to the seas
3. Free trade between countries
5. Colonies to have a say in their own future
8. France to regain Alsace-Lorraine
10. Self-determination for the peoples of eastern Europe
13. Poland to become and independent state
14. A League of Nations to be set up
Which leader wanted land, money and revenge from Germany?
Why did Lloyd George want Germany punished, but not too harshly?
The British people wanted them punished and he wanted to protect Britain’s empire/navy.
However, he didn’t want Germany to seek revenge, and he wanted to keep trading with Germany.
Name the main areas of land taken from Germany in the Treaty of Versailles.
• Alsace-Lorraine to France
• Eupen and Malmedy to Belgium
• Northern Schleswig to Denmark
• Saar to League of Nations for 15 years
• Port of Danzig to League of Nations
• All colonies to Britain and France
Name the military restrictions placed on Germany in the Treaty of Versailles
• Only 100, 000 soldiers
• Conscription banned
• No tanks, Submarines or military aircraft
• Only 6 battleships
• Rhineland demilitarised
What was clause 231?
The War Guilt Clause. Germany had to accept responsibility (blame) for the war. This provided justification for their punishment.
How much were the reparations set at in May 1921?
£6.6 billion (over 42 years)
What new countries were established in the peace process?
Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia, Austria, Hungary
When was the League of Nations set up?
16th January 1920
What were the key aims of the League of Nations as stated in the covenant?
• Improve international trade
• Improve living and working conditions
• Encourage disarmament
• Collective security – act together to protect other members
What was the covenant?
26 laws that all members of the League of Nations agreed to follow.
Who was banned from joining the League of Nations?
• Germany (till 1925)
• Countries defeated in WWI
• The USSR
Which country following a policy of isolationism did not join the League?
What were the three ways the League could act to settle disputes?
• A hearing by an impartial, neutral country
• A ruling by the International Court of Justice
• An inquiry by the Council of the League
What 3 actions could the League of Nations follow if a country ignored their decision?
• Moral persuasion
• Economic sanctions
• Military Force
What was the assembly?
All countries sent a representative. It could suggest action to the Council and vote on issues. It met once a year. Decisions had to by unanimous.
What was the Council of the League of Nations?
A small group that met several times a year and during emergencies. Permanent members (Britain, France, Italy and Japan) had a veto. Non-permanent members were elected for 3-year periods.
Name the permanent members of the Council of the League.
Britain, France, Italy and Japan
What was the Secretariat?
An international civil service that kept records of the Leagues meetings and prepared reports. It was very under-staffed.
What was the Permanent Court of International Justice?
Judges from the member countries would meet at the Hague in the Netherlands to help settle disputes. It hand no way of enforcing its rulings.
Name the Agencies set up by the League of Nations to deal with world problems?
• Health Organisation
• International Labour Organisation
• Slavery Commission
• Commission for Refugees
• Permanent Mandates Commission (to deal with former German colonies)
Which international disputes in the 1920s were solved by the League?
• Aaland Islands - Sweden and Finland classed over them and they were given to Finland.
• Corfu - Greece and Italy
• Bulgaria & Greece
What were the successes of the League of Nations in the 1920s?
• Border disputes
• Attacked slave traders
• Stopped some drug trade
• Sent economic advisers to Austria and Hungary
• Ensured a forty eight hour working week
• Reduced malaria and leprosy
Where is Manchuria?
It is a province of China