PAPER 1: DBQ Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in PAPER 1: DBQ Deck (20):
1

Domestic problems in USSR (when Brezhnev came into office)

1964
Industrialized, arms production, development of new technology

BUT

production of consumer goods/agriculture/SOL = failures

2

Brezhnev's (domestic) reforms

-wanted "market reforms" but afraid of capitalism
-allowed famers to work on state owned plots instead of collectivization
---increased motivation bc could sell surplus
-consumer goods still unavailable
-poor harvests --> increased agriculture importation instead of money to petroleum exports

Still censorship (illegal pamphlets)

"stability of cadres" keep jobs despite poor productivity

3

Brezhnev Doctrine

1968
maintain communist regime/empire at any cost

"communist regimes to remain communist, and would not be allowed to be overthrown internally or externally"

4

Foreign problems of the Brezhnev era

Czechoslovakia introduced reforms that went against communism, so Soviet troops invaded and reversed (Brezhnev Doctrine)
-west criticized doctrine, but no support to Soviet states

RELATIONS WITH US
-SALT talks with Nixon
-agree to limitations in 1972

5

End of the Brezhnev era

Not with his death...
After Andropov and Chernenko in 1985 (beginning of Gorbachev)

6

Afghanistan

Buffer bw Britain/Russia with mixed ethnicities (in Soviet sphere of influence since 1945)

7

Afghanistan: Daoud

Coup instates him as leader in 1973
Supported by Soviets and half of PDPA (Parcham) to make political changes
-starts dictatorship that represses opposition
-attacked Islamic fundamentalism
-less dependent on USSR
-1978: coup d'etat overthrows

8

Afghanistan: New Regime

Marxist Karaki (of the Khalq) becomes leader and instates radical social reform that threatens cultural traditions and wealthy landowners, causing anarchy

9

Afghanistan: the beginning of the war

USSR boots out Karaki in favor of Amin, and tricks him into allowing Soviet aid
-Soviets invade on Christmas 1979 (defends as action of the Brezhnev Doctrine)
-US: Olympic boycott + back out of SALT

10

Afghanistan: the war

1979-1988
High tech Soviets fight war of attrition against low tech HIGHLY MOTIVATED guerilla force
US supports mujahidin via CIA/funds/weapons
Soviet morale drops, soldiers pick up opium problems

11

Afghanistan: civil war turned proxy

-containment of Islamic fundamentalism
-preservation of Soviet control in Afghanistan
-ends in stalemate, war rages on

12

Gorbachev: glasnost

"openness"
-greater freedom of expression/press
-government accountability of the people
-detente = wave of the future
-increased nationalism bc freedom for ethnic minorities

13

Gorbachev: perestroika

"restructuring"
-Enterprise Law encourages private initiativ/independence of small businesses
-Limited Social Market Economy
-foreign investment in the west
-attacks alcoholism
-peaceful coexistence

14

Gorbachev: results

NEGATION OF THE BREZHNEV DOCTRINE
-allowed Soviet states to defect (Poland, Hungary...)
-Baltic not allowed (Lithuania crushed)
-Satellite states crumble, causing bloc to break

15

Poland

1989 Solidarity leaders sign accord with Polish gov. allowing for elections

June election: Solidarity candidates win majority of seats, leader of PCP resigns

16

Czechoslovakia/Velvet Revolution

Civic Forum: mass movement to create political opposition to the communist party
Oct. 1989: demonstration in Wenceslas
Nov.: march on Prague (work force goes on strike)
Dec: PM/president resign, Vaclav Havel --> new president

17

Romania

Ceausescu: Stalinist dictator
-Securitate guns down demonstrators in Timisoara
-Christmas, 1989: Ceausescu seized in coup, executed
-Elections in May 1990 for new pres.

18

Hungary

May 1989: cut barbed wire bw Austria
June: Imre Nagy given hero's burial
-Communist party crumbles
-CP leaders stripped of authority
-complete disintegration in October 1990
-becomes Hungarian Socialist Party

19

East Germany

EG's escape to WG thru Hungary when barbed wire cut
-accessibility cut off in Sep.
-continue emigration thru Prague
Honecker replaced with Krenz in Oct.
-EG cabinet resigns and Politburo reorganizes
-Nov.: Berlin Wall opened
March: communists voted from office
-September: leave Warsaw Pact

20

Berlin Wall

Yalta Conference divides Germany into zones of occupation
Wall to stop emigration

AUGUST 13, 1961 PUT UP
NOVEMBER 1989 TAKEN DOWN