Paper 2: Essay Flashcards Preview

History HL Exam > Paper 2: Essay > Flashcards

Flashcards in Paper 2: Essay Deck (18):
1

Spanish Civil War: causes

July election in 1936 reveals two sides
-Republicans: Soviet support + American volunteer troops
-Nationalists: German/Italian support, led by modern day caudillo Francisco Franco

2

SCW: Practices

April 1937, Guernica bombed
-tests Blitzkrieg strategy
-targets, kills, wounds over 2000 civilians
-nationalists deny any knowledge

3

SCW: effects

1938: Stalin halts aid bc US/LN do not interfere after Franco comes to power
-Stalin's frustration --> Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact
1939: Franco takes over, but global attention diverted to WWII
Franco = silent ally to US, but doesn't get involved

4

Persian Gulf War: causes

During peace negotiations with Iran, Hussein claims that Kuwait is siphoning oil from oil fields at common border, and demands that Kuwait/Saudi Arabia cancel Iraq's foreign debt
-Iraq amasses troops on Kuwait's border, alarming Egypt into initiating negotiations
-Hussein breaks off negotiations, orders invasion of Kuwait in 1990
-UN mandates he withdraw by Jan. 1991
-refusal --> war

5

PGW: practices

-Hussein declared jihad against coalition
-UN authorizes "all necessary means" of force against Iraq
-OPERATION DESERT STORM
--air operation to hit air defenses, followed by weapon plants/oil refineries
--Stealth Bombers: Smart bombs with laser guidance systems/infrared night bombing
-OPERATION DESERT SABRE
--ground operation in Feb.
--coalition encircles and defeats Iraqis, liberates Kuwait

6

PGW: Effects

Feb 28, 1991: ceasefire
Coalition won, but Hussein not removed from power, leading to...
-brutal suppression of Kurds and Shi'ite
-second Persian Gulf War (Iraq War) since doesn't adhere to weapon reductions

7

Yalta Conference

Feb. 1945
Stalin, FDR, Churchill
-split Germany into four
-dismantle Germany's industry
-Stalin wants reparations of $20 bil.
-Stalin pledges support in Pacific

8

Potsdam Conference

July 1945
Stalin, Truman, Atlee
-Nuremberg Trials
-No common enemy anymore, tensions/dispute
-BEGINNING OF COLD WAR

9

Truman Doctrine

Economically support Greece/Turkey to prevent them from joining Soviet sphere
Beginning of containment policy

10

Marshall Plan

American initiative to aid Europe after devastation of WWII
Also containment: establish positive relation to stop communism

11

NATO

North Atlantic Treaty Organization
Safeguard freedom/security of members through political/military alliances

12

COMECON

Economic association of Communist countries (1949)
Facilitate trade/development bw communist nations

13

Warsaw Pact

mutual defense organization bw USSR and seven satellite states
protect each other if attack
USSR in charge of armed forces

14

Berlin Blockade

1948
Stalin issues blockade in June to stop rail/road/water traffic to starve out Western powers
Results in Berlin Airlift (back-to-back schedule of supplies)

Blockade lifted in May 1949

15

Congo Civil War

Lumaba (nationalist/pro-Soviet) = PM, Kasauuba (pro-West) = president. Civil war erupts

-UN sends peacekeepers to protect Belgians/restore order
-Khrushchev sends weapons/technical advisors
-US sends weapons/CIA

Lubama assassinated, Mobutu (commander of army) emerges and seizes control

tribal/ethnic loyalties > nationalistic ideals

16

Bay of Pigs

April 1961
Followed by Operation Mongoose

17

Cuban Missile Crisis 1962

U-2 flight reveals nuclear warheads in Cuba
-Quarantine of Cuba
-back and forth negotiations bw Kennedy/Khrushchev
-remove Cuban missiles for Jupiter missiles

Results:
-DC-->Moscow hotline established, Partial Test Ban treaty, Khrushchev ousted

18

Vietnam

1956-1975
High tech US (helicopters, advanced weaponry) fight war of attrition against HIGHLY MOTIVATED low tech guerilla fighters (tunnels, know the land)
-USSR supplies NV through Ho Chi Minh trail

PARIS PEACE ACCORDS 1973
-US stop butting into SV, rebuild NV
-NV stop asking for coalition gov, ceasefire
-SV agree to coalition gov negotiations, polls