WW1: 1914 - 1918 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in WW1: 1914 - 1918 Deck (28):
1

Causes

Militarism
Alliances
Imperialism
Nationalism
Other factors

2

Causes: the "M"

MILITARISM
-military power seen as symbol of international prestige
-glorification of war
-arms race bw powers
-influential MILITARY leaders, weak POLITICAL leaders
-Russia mobilizes troops, spurs Germany to attack Britain/France

3

Causes: the "A"

ALLIANCES
-Russian agreements with small Slavic nations
-Triple Entente (Allied) vs. Triple Alliance (Central
-domino effect: alliances pull everyone down

4

Triple Entente

France
Great Britain
Russia

5

Triple Alliance

Germany
Italy
Austria-Hungary

6

Causes: the "I"

IMPERIALISM
-British concern with German growth/desire for colonies
--desire to contain Germany/territorial claims in Africa
-Fight for global dominance in industry
-resources/trade routes in Med.
-Economic rivalries bw British/Germans/French

7

Causes: the "N"

NATIONALISM
-French want revenge on Germany due to loss in war (1800s)
-France wants Alsace/Lorraine back from Germany
-Pan-slovism in Eastern Europe
-German pride in military/industrialization
-competition bw ethnic groups (struggle in Turkey)

8

Causes: other factors

Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand (Austria-Hungary) by Serbian nationalist in June of 1914
-Strategic location of Balkans
-Russia falls apart by Russian Revolution
-Zimmerman Telegram brings US to war

9

Response to Assassination

Germany gives Russia/France ultimatum to stop mobilization and declare neutrality

10

Germany declares war

On Russia - August 1, 1914
On France - August 3, 1914

11

Advantages to Triple Entente

Britain = best navy
US as trading power
lots of colonies

12

Disadvantages to Triple Entente

divided/can't communicate
German U-boats = huge threat to British navy
Russia lacks weapons

13

Advantages to Triple Alliance

intensely industrialized
troops from AH
strong military power from Germany

14

Disadvantages to Triple Alliance

two fronts: Russia east, France/Britain west
cut off from colonies
Italy switches sides

15

Balkans

Between Austro-Hungarian, Ottoman, Russian empire
-rich in natural resources
-ethnic nationalism instead of political nationalism --> instability

16

Practices of War

"Total War"
-fight on land, sea, sky
-wear down the enemy with war of attrition (not trying to gain territory)
-trenches (machine guns, tanks, chemical weapons)
-total mobilization of population

17

Lusitania

May 7, 1915
German u-boats sunk American cargo ship, causing Germany to suspend unrestricted sub warfare

18

Zimmerman Telegram

January 1917
released to America by Britain in March, causing Wilson to visit Congress

19

America declares war

April 1917
provide 12 million men, but can't fight til end of 1917

20

Wilson's 14 Points

1. No more secret agreements
2. free navigation of all seas
3. end to economic barriers
4. countries to reduce weapon numbers
5. decisions regarding colonies should be impartial
6-13. deals with specific nations
14. League of Nations

21

Verdun

?

22

Somme

June-November 1916 Britain vs. Germany
-DONT HAVE WEAPONS so bomb G's and thought all dead
-G's hid, surprise attack on B's when they come to investigate
-overall massacre

23

Passchendale

July-November
-rain --> mud, drowning
-tanks/planes don't work

24

Schlieffen Plan

German plan to attack France and take over, then on to Russia to avoid a 2 front war
-supposed to take 6 weeks
-lost time in Belgium bc they resisted
-gave time for Russia to mobilize

25

End of the War

Spring 1918 Germany runs out of resources
Armistice signed at 11/11/18

26

Results of War

-Wilson's 14 point --> LN
-Treaty of Versailles
-Isolation in US, Red Scare in Europe/US
-Balfour Declaration (homeland for Jews in Palestine)
-Ottoman/Hapsburg/Austro-Hungarian Empires dissolve
-Kaiser abdictates in 1918
-Dawes Plan

27

Dawes Plan

American banks give loans to Germany (US --> Germany, Germany pays back France/Britain, France/Britain buys goods from American markets)

28

Treaty of Versailles

1919 - Wilson, Clemanceau, Lloyd George, Orlando
-Germany demilitarized, disarmed, and must pay reparations of $33 billion
-Germany must lose colonies (Rhineland, Alsace/Lorraine, part of Russia), territory reduced by 10%
-War Guilt Clause = psychological defeat

OVERALL GOAL: create new world order where such a warm could never again exist