WW2: 1939 - 1945 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in WW2: 1939 - 1945 Deck (17):
1

Causes

Hitler
Economic/political factors
WWI Treaty of Versailles
Diplomacy

2

Causes: "H"

HITLER
-challenged ToV/reparations
-rebuilt German military (begins draft, build weapons)
-territorial aggression
-extreme nationalism
-anti-Semitism as a scapegoat
-lebensraum (living spaces for the master race)

3

Causes: "E"

ECONOMIC/POLITICAL
-economic depression in Germany caused by inflation/reparations
-Hitler = threat, but defense against communism (remember Red Scare?)
-Dawes Plan ties US economy to Europe through reparations

4

Causes: "W"

WWI TREATY OF VERSAILLES
-boundaries redrawn: Germany loses 10% territory and wants to gain it back
-German reparations cripple economy
-creation of weak nations: Poland/Austria/Hungary
-restriction of military/war guilt clause/weapon limits

Basically makes everyone mad

5

Causes: "D"

DIPLOMACY
-policy of appeasement (peace at any cost) by LN
--ex: Hitler can have Sudentenland if he leaves rest of Czechoslovakia alone; doesn't stop
-US Neutrality Acts; basically isolationism
-1939 Nazi-Soviet Non-aggression pact
-Germany allies with Italy and Japan

6

Tactics of War: Europe

"Europe first"
-1st war with unconventional weapons (not as many guns)
-Submarine warfare
-strategic/fire/carpet bombing (Dresden , Berlin)
-Maginot line (fortified defense line against Rhine river; ineffective bc Germany attacks from N instead of S)
-Blitzkrieg - speed, surprise, terror
-Propaganda

7

Tactics of War: Pacific Theater

Atomic bombs in Nagasaki, Hiroshima, bombing of Tokyo
Submarines/airplanes/air craft carriers
Kamikaze = suicide pilots
Bonzai Charge
Bushido code: never surrender
Island hopping instead of direct (US takes over weak Japanese islands as staging areas for further assault)

8

Strategies of War

-Cash and Carry: policy/trade embargoes; supply allies with weapons
-destroyers for bases
Operation Barbarossa: German invasion of Russia
-extend fighting to civilians/city populations
-war of movement (gain territory) instead of attrition

9

Nature of War

"Total War" - involve civilians (Guernica/Dresden), no distinction bw soldiers/civilians, nuclear weapons
-Final Solution/Holocaust
-economies turn to war efforts
-weapons more deadly
-women in workplace

10

RESULTS: Europe

-USSR occupy central Europe (buffer zone)
-France/UK economically devastated
-power split bw US/USSR -> Cold War
-Germany/Berlin separated by Yalta
-power in Europe --> bipolar division
-Nuremberg Trials

11

RESULTS: Pacific theater

Japan occupied by MacARthur and demilitarized by US
Unconditional surrender demanded
US has nuclear monopoly

12

RESULTS: both

UN emerges from LN
Zionist Movement = extension from Balfour Declaration and creates Israel
Policy of containment
Arms Race
NATO formed, then Warsaw Pact
US = industrial giant

13

Warsaw Pact

Mutual defense organization bw USSR and seven satellite states

USSR in charge of armed forces

14

Truman Doctrine

Containment
-economically support Greece/Turkey to prevent them from joining Soviet sphere
-start of containment policy

15

Marshall Plan

American initiative to aid Europe
-help rebuild European economies after WWII to stop the spread of communism

16

Yalta Conference

Meeting of Allied leaders at end of WWII
-Churchill, Stalin, Roosevelt
-Russia agreed to declare war on Japan after surrender of Germany in return for Churchill/Roosevelt's promise that territories lost in Russo-Japanese conflict would be returned to USSR

-split Berlin/Germany in 4 Allied-occupied zones
-Stalin agreed to UN
-Nazi war criminals brought to justice

17

Potsdam Conference

After VE day in Europe (July-August 1945)
-Churchill/Atlee, Truman, Stalin
-tension begins to emerge bc common enemy in Germany lacking (beginning of Cold War)
-German border redistribution debated