Part 1: human development and behavior in environment Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Part 1: human development and behavior in environment Deck (119)
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1

Freud psychosexual stages

oral 0-1
anal 2-3
phallic/oedipal 3-6
latency 6-11
puberty/genital 12-18

2

Freud structural theory: id

primitive drives and instinctual needs; impulses, primary process thinking, unconscious, discharges tension

3

freud structural theory: ego

mediates between id and external reality; moderates conflict between id and internalized prohibitions, adaptive capacity in relation to external reality
reality testing, judgement, control impulses, self-esteem, modulate affect, developmental challenge mastery

4

freud structural theory: superego

seat of conscience; ego ideal, internal and external rewards/punishments to control/regulate id

5

freud 3 levels of the mind

unconscious
preconscious
conscious

6

piaget: sensorimotor thought (0-2)

image of objects
primitive logic in object manipulatoin
begin intentional actions
imitative play
signals meaning in events; language toward end of stage

7

Piaget: preoperational thought (2.5-6/7)

language development enables symbolic functioning to occur
concretism
words, math, music symbols
magical thinking
concrete, irreversible, egocentric thinking
night terrors

8

Piaget: concrete operations (7-11)

abstract thoughts
games with rules
understand cause and effect
understand logical implications
thinking independent of experience and reversible
rules of logic

9

Piaget: formal operations (11-18)

increase in abstraction
construct ideals and plan for future
think hypothetically
de-center through interactions with peers and elders
assume adult roles and responsibilities

10

Piage object permanence

child recognizes object still exists when hidden because they have the ability to form schema

11

Erickson: trust vs mistrust (0-1)

trust self and environment--cornerstone of healthy personality
influenced by care from mom--discontinuity in care may increase natural sense of loss/mistrust

12

Erickson: autonomy vs shame and doubt (2-3)

start to move around and explore on own
shame and doubt if deprived of doing so and learning duty

13

Erickson: initiative vs guilt (3-6)

play age
imagination from moving and communicating
curiosity and consuming fantasies that could lead to guilt and anxiety (if adults feed into this, stifles initiative)
conscience established

14

Erickson: industry vs inferiority (6-11)

school age
learn how to do and make things with others
open to instruction and getting recognition for producing things
inferiority comes when no praise for things produced

15

Erickson: identity vs identity diffusion (12-18 adolescence)

revolution that comes with puberty--integrate self with biological drives and social role expectations
upheaval may lead to negative identity of what others don't want

16

Erickson: intimacy vs isolation (18-mid 20s)

young adulthood
intimacy with self and others when secure in identity
if afraid of losing identity in a relationship, will isolate

17

Erickson: generativity vs self-absorption (adulthood)

interest in establishing and guiding next generation
self-absorption leads to stagnation and interpersonal impoverishment

18

Erickson: integrity vs disgust (maturity)

accept responsibility for what life is and was (ego integrity)
without, feel despair, displeasure, disgust

19

Margaret Mahler: object relations; normal, symbiotic phase

0-3 months
normal, symbiotic phase
normal autism
alert inactivity

20

Margaret Mahler: object relations normal symbiosis

2-6 months
no difference between self and other, mutual cuing

21

Margaret Mahler: object relations separation, individuation phase

6-12 months
differentiation
alert when awake, stranger anxiety (6-8 months)

22

Margaret Mahler: object relations 7-18 months

practicing
disengage from mom with creeping, return to refuel (12 mo-separation anxiety)

23

Margaret Mahler: object relations integration phase

15-24 months
rapproachment
disengagement alternates with intense demand for attention; splitting of objects (good/bad); can leave mom rather than be left; language development; solve problems on own
18 mo--prolonged separation anxiety

24

Margaret Mahler: object relations object constancy phase

24-38 months
consolidation of individuality and object constancy
can substitute internal image in absence; unified self-image
NOT THE SAME AS PIAGET OBJECT PERMANENCE

25

Kubler-ross stages of death and dying-concept begins at age

concept that death is irreversible begins at age 7

26

psychological responses to awareness of dying

denial and isolation
anger
bargaining
depression
acceptance

27

Kohlberg theory of moral development parallels

cognitive; has 3 levels with 2 stages each

28

Kohlberg theory of moral development preconventional stage

elementary age
obedience/punishment
conform to rules to get rewards

29

Kohlberg theory of moral development conventional

early adolescence
act to gain approval from others
obey laws/rules, fulfill social duties/obligations, avoid censure and guilt

30

Kohlberg theory of moral development post conventional

adulthood
interest in welfare of others, concern with individual rights and being morally right
guided by individual principles based on broad universal ethics; concern for larger individual issues of morality (most people don't get to this level)