Flashcards in Parts of speech Deck (29)
what are open word classes?
word classes that allow new words into them such as adjectives, nouns, main verbs, adverbs
What are closed word classes?
Word classes that do not allow or rarely allow new words into their classes, such as pronouns, determiners, auxiliary verbs, conjuntions, prepostions
What are homonyms?
words that share the same form but are not related in meaning: ex: Peer vs. peer.
What are homonyms?
Words that share the same sound but differ in spelling:
ex: weigh and weigh
What are homographs?
words that share the same spelling but differ in pronounciation: ex: row (line of object ) and row= quarrel
what are lexical words?
Words listed as main words in dictionaries
What are suffixes ?
Endings added to words to form new words:
what are noun suffixes?
noun endings such as -tion, er, or, ism , ity, ment, ness
What are the noun classes?
We have two sets: proper and common nouns
What are proper nouns?
Nouns that names people, places, occasions that begin with a captial letter: Lucy, New york, Christmas
What are common nouns?
Nouns that are not names such as the capital of Sweden is Stockholm.
What are two subclasses of common nouns?
Concrete and abstract nouns
count-nouns and non-count nouns
What are concrete and abstract nouns?
Concrete nouns refer to people, places, or things: girl, kitchen, car
abstract nouns refer to qualities, states or actions; humour, belif, honesty
what are count nouns?
Nouns that can be counted, they can have both singular and plural form: a, one, every, -ten, many, those - students.
what are non-count nouns?
Those that cannot be counted: information, furniture, software. They are treated as singular .
much, your, that- information
Are abstract nouns usally count-nouns?
No, they are usually non-count nouns
Can determiners such as THE and YOUR go with both non-count and count nouns?
what does A and THOSE go with?
singular count nouns or only with plural count nouns
How can non-count nouns be converted into count nouns?
When the count nouns refer to diffrent kinds of varieties
"The shop has a selection of cheeses"
or the count noun refers to units that are obvious in the situation:
"I will have two coffies please"
when do we use few/little and fewer/less?
Few/ fewer are used with count nouns
little/less are used with non-count nouns
How does count nouns make a distinction between singular and plural?
The regular plurals ends in inflectional -s
Name some irregular plurals of woman, man, foot, goose, tooth, mouse, louse, brother, child, ox, stimulus, curriculum, crisis, phenomenon
women, men, feet, geese, teeth, mice, lice, brethren, children, oxen, stimuli, curricula, crises, phenomena.
Name some nouns that mark gender in english: (the equivalent of these genders)
father, mother, widower, widow, bridegroom , bride, boy, girl, host, hostess, hero, heroine, bull, vow, lion, lioness
How many cases does nouns have?
common and genitive case
what are common case?
The most often used
Singular: the student plural: the students
What are genitive case?
Genitive case generally indicates that the noun is dependent on the noun that follows it, this case often corresponds to the structrue "of"
How is case marked in writing for regular nouns?
By an apostrophe plus s in singular "student's "
and by apostrophe following the plural -s
What do we use the genitive S for?
to express possession," my mother's car" refer to a period of time, "an hour's stay" or a type of something. " a womans college"